This version (2015/11/01 17:26) was approved by gatherk.The Previously approved version (2015/10/28 15:49) is available.Diff

Kigan: Practical English Grammar (1825)

Last Change: 12.10.2015

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<grammar_book>
    <grammar_header>
        <gr_id>10</gr_id>
        <gr_author_id>7</gr_author_id>
        <gr_last_edit by="Gather, Kirsten">12.10.2015</gr_last_edit>
        <gr_author>Kigan, John</gr_author>
        <gr_author_gender>Male</gr_author_gender>
        <gr_education></gr_education>
        <gr_occupation></gr_occupation>
        <gr_title>A Practical English Grammar, Agreeably to the New System. Adapted to the Use of Schools, and Private Students; Containing Copious Examples of Wrong Choice of Words, under Etymology: and Wrong Arrangement of them under Syntax.</gr_title>
        <gr_short_title>Practical English Grammar</gr_short_title>
        <gr_publisher>Simms and McIntyire, Donegall Street</gr_publisher>
        <gr_place_of_publication>Belfast</gr_place_of_publication>
        <gr_year_publication>1825</gr_year_publication>
        <gr_year_edition>1825</gr_year_edition>
        <gr_no_edition></gr_no_edition>
        <gr_no_of_pages>140</gr_no_of_pages>
        <gr_no_of_words></gr_no_of_words>
        <gr_language>English</gr_language>
        <gr_variety>British English</gr_variety>
        <gr_type>Teaching Grammar</gr_type>
        <gr_form>Textbook</gr_form>
        <gr_target_institution>School, Self Study</gr_target_institution>
        <gr_target_audience>Intermediate</gr_target_audience>
        <gr_target_audience_author>Schools, Private Students</gr_target_audience_author>
    </grammar_header>
    <grammar_text>
        <div0 description="front_matter">
            <div1 description="title_page">
                A PRACTICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR, AGREEABLY TO THE NEW SYSTEM. ADAPTED TO The Use of Schools, and private Students; CONTAINING Copious Examples of wrong choice of Words, under Etymology: and wrong arrangement of them under Syntax. WITH A KEY, SHOWING THE CORRECTION OF THESE EXAMPLES. AND Questions on both Etymology and Syntax, To be answered by the Pupil. By JOHN KIGAN, Author of the New System.<linebreak/>BELFAST: SIMMS AND M'INTYRE, DONEGALL STREET. 1825.
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no=""/>
            <div1 description="imprint">[Entered at Stationers' Hall.]<linebreak/>T. Mairs &amp; Co. printers.</div1>
            <pagebreak page_no=""/>
            <div1 description="preface">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Preface.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>MY principal design in publishing the following compilation, is to correct some errors that appear to exist in the science of English grammar, as it is at present taught: to facilitate the instruction of youth, in this science; and to abridge the labour of students, in acquiring a knowledge of it.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The correction of long established errors, in any science, is, perhaps, one of the most hopeless tasks, in which an individual need expect to succeed. He will have many difficulties to encounter; and many obstacles to remove, before he can make any progress. One of those, which will oppose the present attempt, will be, the difficulty of gaining the teachers over to his interest. Many of these, who have grown grey in the service, and whose respectability, has kept pace with their years, will not, for any thing that he can say, deviate from the path, in which they have so long, and so successfully walked. Others who have not been an equal length of time in the office, have yet filled it long enough to acquire such an attachment to the present system, as not to be easily persuaded that it is deformed by any errors. Some of these <italic>modestly</italic> assume to themselves, as teachers, the exclusive privilege, and capability, of either writing a school book, or judging of one. And with equal <italic>modesty</italic>, prescribe binding and invariable rules to those who undertake these tasks. Rules which, like the laws of the Medes and Persians of old, must be unalterable. Thus, laying an injunction on the human mind, in its search after truth, and its progress <pagebreak page_no="iv"/> to perfection, similiar to that which we read that the Almighty laid on the ocean, at the time of the creation, namely, "<small_caps>this far you may go; but no farther</small_caps>." They, besides, strenuously recommend  the establishment of what may be called, <italic>A Scientific Inquisition</italic>; through which to enforce the observance of those rules, and obedience to this injunction. The design of these teachers may be good; but fortunately, I think, for the improvement of science, we live in a climate that is not favourable to such establishments. Much might be said against this proposed Inquisition; but it seems unnecessary here: for every liberal and enlightened  mind, will at once conceive the ultimate ill consequence of permitting any self - created tribunal, to exercise arbitrary power over, or limit the operations of the human intellect.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Another difficulty may arise from the opinion which some classical scholars, as well teachers as others, seem to entertain, that the alterations pro-posed by this system, will increase the difficulty which students find in learning Greek and Latin, by departing widely from the terms and forms used in the Grammars of these languages. But I request those scholars to show how the terms and forms used in the Grammars of the Greek and Latin, which are <italic>transpositive</italic> languages, can be truly applicable to the grammar of the English language, which is purely <italic>analogous</italic>. Terms, several of which, when applied to the English tongue, are either void of signification, or convey an improper one. And I would further ask any of those scholars, Is a lad who has acquired an accurate grammatical knowledge of the English language, by the shortest  and simplest system possible, worse fitted for <pagebreak page_no="v"/> learning Greek and Latin, than if he had not read English grammar; or had acquired but an imperfect knowledge of it?</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Doctor Lowth, about sixty years ago, gave the English grammar a scientific form: and subsequently, numerous other writers offered essays on the subject, each proposing some improvement. Of these Mr. <italic>Lindley Murray</italic> seems to have taken the lead; his grammar is therefore in very general use.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>But whatever improvement any of these writers proposed in the science, was confined to the mode of teaching the system, or its adaptation to schools. Not one of them seems to have supposed, that the principles on which it is founded are erroneous. But a long and attentive consideration of the subject  has convinced me, that these principles are erroneous. Or rather, that it is a mere practical system, not founded on any principle. A system extracted, I presume, from the grammars of those languages called <italic>learned languages</italic>; but which is not adapted to the genius of the English tongue.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>However, lest the error should be in myself, instead of the system of which I complain; and to procure the opinions of competent judges of the subject, I published, about a year ago, a treatise entitled, "<italic>Remarks on the practice of grammarians, with an attempt to discover the principles of a new system of English grammar:</italic>" in which I pointed out the errors that I conceived to exist in the present system; showed the mode by which I proposed to correct those errors; and explained the principles on which I make each correction, and on which I found the new system. To this treatise, I must refer those, whose curiosity may prompt them to a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the subject. The favourable opinions that I have <pagebreak page_no="vi"/> received of this treatise, from men whose acquirements render them undoubted judges of it, have encouraged me to bring forward this Practical Grammar, sooner than I at first intended.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>This grammar, shows the practice, agreeably to the principles explained in the above - mentioned treatise; and in a form adapted to the use of schools. Under Etymology, it treats of the different kinds of words, and their modifications; and illustrates by examples, the proper choice of the words of each class, and the customary mode of using them; and immediately after, contrasts these examples with others which show the improper choice, or use of these words. In these last examples the erroneous words are marked, and left to be corrected. Thus it instructs the pupil how to correct errors in the choice or use of the words of the first class, before it proceeds to the second; and the same with each succeeding class. It then gives as many examples of errors promiscuously chosen; in each of which, the pupil is expected to select the erroneous word, as well as to correct it. Thus it conveys as much information under Etymology, as can be collected from both the Etymology and Syntax of Murray's Grammar, with his Exercises in addition.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Under Syntax, it shows how words are formed into phrases; distinguishes a phrase from a sentence; and words and phrases from each other, in a sentence, by an improved mode of punctuation. It then shows, by ten short and simple rules of Syntax, the arrangement and relative situation of every word and phrase, of which each kind of sentence is composed, so as to convey the precise meaning intended. These rules are likewise illustrated by examples, which are also contrasted with others that exhibit a wrong arrangement of words <pagebreak page_no="vii"/> and phrases; and these are left to be corrected. Nearly the entire of Syntax is new matter; not to be found in any other grammar.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>To facilitate a reference to the Key, the erroneous  examples in the grammar are numbered; and the correction of each in the Key, is shown by a correspondent number. These numbers prevented, in most instances, the necessity of reprinting the entire sentence, and thus contributed greatly to diminish  the size of the book.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The questions on Etymology, are each accompanied  with its answer: and those that were thought necessary on Syntax, are numbered, and the answer of each in the grammar, is similarly numbered; so that a reference to them will be very easy. A teacher, or other person who has not read grammar, may, by the help of these questions, examine and cross-examine a pupil with sufficient accuracy. And surely a grammarian will be able to do so, with at least equal facility. Thus, I trust, will be removed, one of the greatest obstacles that could be raised against the immediate introduction of this grammar into schools. And as these questions will be equally useful and applicable to those who may wish to learn the science without the assistance of a teacher, I trust I may on the whole, risk the assertion, that the entire is so constructed, and is rendered so simple, so concise, and so comprehensive, that a lad of common talents, who has acquired the use of his understanding, may learn more of the science, by attentively reading it, than he could from all the Grammars, Exercises and Keys, now in use, with the assistance of any teacher.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Those who have read the principles alluded to above, may perceive that the rules of Syntax are arranged here, differently from what they are there. <pagebreak page_no="viii"/> That two of the rules, the substance of which appears to be included in two others, are omitted: and two others, the 9th. and 10th. are substituted. This alteration, I trust, will be found to be an improvement. And I anticipate the discovery of many other imperfections that will need improvement; and many errors and mistakes that will need correction. I trust however, that even a near approximation  to perfection, will not be expected in a first essay on such a subject: and that I may apologize for these imperfections in the words of <reference author="Lowth, Robert" judgemental="1" type="quotation"><italic>Doctor Lowth</italic></reference>, in the preface to his grammar: <quotation author="Lowth, Robert">"A system of this kind, arising from the collection and arrangement of a multitude of minute particulars, which often elude the most careful search; and sometimes escape observation when they are most obvious, must always stand in need of improvement. It is indeed the necessary condition of every work of human art or science, small as well as great, to advance towards perfection by slow degrees: by an approximation, which, though it may still carry it forward, yet will certainly never bring it to the point to which it tends."</quotation></paragraph>
                <paragraph>I have perhaps, in some instances, given a greater number of examples of illustration, than teachers may think necessary for the pupils to commit to memory. This is done, with a view to the advantage  of those who may wish to learn the science, without the assistance of a teacher.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The utility of using different sized types in the printing, will, I trust, be evident.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>If this system should be thought worthy of encouragement, I would be extremely thankful for any communications that would point out errors or propose improvements.</paragraph>
            </div1>
        </div0>
        <pagebreak page_no=""/>
        <div0 description="main_body">
            <heading level="1">PRACTICAL <bold>ENGLISH GRAMMAR</bold>.</heading>
            <paragraph><small_caps>Grammar</small_caps> is the science that regulates the use of articulate sounds, in representing objects, and in expressing our thoughts by words.</paragraph>
            <paragraph>English Grammar may be divided into two parts; <italic>Etymology</italic> and <italic>Syntax</italic>.</paragraph>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Etymology.">
                <heading level="1"><bold>PART I. ETYMOLOGY.</bold></heading>
                <paragraph>Etymology treats of the different sorts of words and their modifications; and shows how one word may be derived from another word.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The English language contains two <italic>orders</italic> of words; <italic>Nouns</italic> and <italic>Verbs</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Nouns</italic>, are the names of the objects or things that exist; or of which we have any notion.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Verbs</italic>, are words by which we represent  the notions that we conceive concerning  objects or things.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Nouns</italic>, are of four kinds; <italic>substantive</italic>; <italic>attributive</italic>; <italic>active</italic>, and <italic>personal</italic>.</paragraph>
                <folio folio_no="A3"/>
                <pagebreak page_no="10"/>
                <paragraph><italic>Verbs</italic>, are of six kinds; <italic>definitive</italic>, <italic>descriptive</italic>; <italic>ascriptive</italic>; <italic>affirmative</italic>; <italic>comparative</italic>, and <italic>relative</italic>.</paragraph>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">CHAP. I. — Of <italic>Nouns</italic>.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">SECTION I. OF SUBSTANTIVE NOUNS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Substantive nouns, are the names of substances, or things that occupy any portion of space, and appear to possess an independent existence.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>These names, are either <italic>proper</italic> or <italic>common</italic>.</paragraph>   
                    <paragraph><italic>Proper</italic> names, are those appropriated to individuals; as, <italic>George, Dublin, Shannon, Ireland</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Common</italic> names, stand for kinds containing many sorts; or for sorts, containing many individuals under them; as, <italic>Man, City, River, Nation</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Common names are varied, or modified, to represent the number and gender of the things which they signify.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">OF NUMBER.</heading>
                    <paragraph><italic>Number</italic>, is the distinction of one object, from <italic>more</italic> objects than one.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="11"/>
                    <paragraph>Nouns, have two numbers; the singular <ed_note type="correction">singluar</ed_note>, and the plural. The singular denotes <italic>one</italic> object; as, <italic>book, table</italic>. The plural denotes more than one; as, <italic>books, tables</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Nouns are generally made plural, by adding <italic>s</italic> to the singular; but to some, for the ease of pronunciation, we add <italic>es</italic>; as, <italic>miss, misses; brush, brushes; fox, foxes; hero, heroes; coach, coaches</italic>. Some, change <italic>y</italic>, into <italic>ies</italic>; as, <italic>lady, ladies; city, cities</italic>. And some change <italic>f</italic>, or <italic>fe</italic> into <italic>ves</italic>; as, <italic>loaf, loaves; life, lives</italic>.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">The mode of forming or spelling words, seems to belong to orthography; I have therefore, great doubts about the propriety of treating of it here.</paragraph></footnote></paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some nouns, are irregular in the formation of their plurals; as, <italic>Man, men, woman, women; child, children; foot, feet; ox, oxen; die, dice; tooth, teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse, lice; penny, pence</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some nouns, from the nature of the things which they express, are used only in the singular form; as, <italic>wheat, pitch, gold</italic>. Others, only in the plural form; as, <italic>bellows, scissors <ed_note type="correction">scissars</ed_note>, lungs, riches</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="12"/>
                    <paragraph>Some express both numbers without changing their form; as, <italic>deer, sheep, swine</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXERCISES ON NUMBER.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Tell, or spell the plural of Book, candle, hat, table, street, potato, rock, stone, house, flower, boy, girl, tyro, grotto, monarch, stomach, ruff, muff, gulf, multitude, roof, sea, key, toy. Fox, fish, inch, coach, church, glass, branch, peach, brush. Army, enemy, city, booby, lady. Loaf, leaf, life, wife, sheaf, calf.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXAMPLES OF ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.</heading>
                    <paragraph>1. The water was one hundred <italic>fathom</italic> in depth. 2. The well was ten <italic>foot</italic> deep. 3. I saw a flock of <italic>gooses</italic>. 4. I killed two <italic>mouses</italic>. 5. John met three <italic>mans</italic>, and two <italic>childs</italic>. 6. He has but one <italic>teeth</italic>. 7. Look at the <italic>Oxes</italic>. 8. I have two <italic>penknifes</italic>. 9. Two <italic>pair</italic> of ladies' <ed_note type="correction">ladie's</ed_note> gloves. 10. Henry had six <italic>wifes</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">OF GENDER.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Animals are distinguished by a difference of sex, and their common names are adapted to show this distinction. It is either masculine or feminine. The masculine gender, denotes animals of the male kind; as, <italic>man, boy</italic>. The feminine gender, denotes animals of the female kind; as, <italic>woman, girl</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="13"/>
                    <paragraph>This distinction is shown in three different ways.
                        1st, <italic>By different words</italic>; as,
                        <table cols="2" rows="30">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Male</cell>
                                <cell>Female</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Bachelor</cell>
                                <cell>Maid</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Boar</cell>
                                <cell>Sow</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Boy</cell>
                                <cell>Girl</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Brother</cell>
                                <cell>Sister</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Buck</cell>
                                <cell>Doe</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Bull</cell>
                                <cell>Cow</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Cock</cell>
                                <cell>Hen</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Dog</cell>
                                <cell>Bitch</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Drake</cell>
                                <cell>Duck</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Earl</cell>
                                <cell>Countess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Father</cell>
                                <cell>Mother</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Friar</cell>
                                <cell>Nun</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Gander</cell>
                                <cell>Goose</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Hart</cell>
                                <cell>Roe</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Horse</cell>
                                <cell>Mare</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Husband</cell>
                                <cell>Wife</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>King</cell>
                                <cell>Queen</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Lad</cell>
                                <cell>Lass</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Lord</cell>
                                <cell>Lady</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Man</cell>
                                <cell>Woman</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Master</cell>
                                <cell>Mistress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Milter</cell>
                                <cell>Spawner</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Nephew</cell>
                                <cell>Niece</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Ram</cell>
                                <cell>Ewe</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Sloven</cell>
                                <cell>Slut</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Son</cell>
                                <cell>Daughter</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Stag</cell>
                                <cell>Hind</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Uncle</cell>
                                <cell>Aunt</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Wizard</cell>
                                <cell>Witch</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                        2nd, <italic>By different terminations of the same word</italic>; as,
                        <table cols="2" rows="48">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Male</cell>
                                <cell>Female</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Abbott</cell>
                                <cell>Abbess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Actor</cell>
                                <cell>Actress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Administrator</cell>
                                <cell>Administratrix</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Adulterer</cell>
                                <cell>Adulteress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Arbiter</cell>
                                <cell>Arbitress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Author</cell>
                                <cell>Authoress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Ambassador</cell>
                                <cell>Ambassadress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Baron</cell>
                                <cell>Baroness</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Bridegroom</cell>
                                <cell>Bride</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Benefactor</cell>
                                <cell>Benefactress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Caterer</cell>
                                <cell>Cateress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Chanter</cell>
                                <cell>Chantress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Conductor</cell>
                                <cell>Conductress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Count</cell>
                                <cell>Countess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Deacon</cell>
                                <cell>Deaconess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Duke</cell>
                                <cell>Duchess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Elector</cell>
                                <cell>Electress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Emperor</cell>
                                <cell>Empress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Enchanter</cell>
                                <cell>Enchantress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Executor</cell>
                                <cell>Executrix</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Governor</cell>
                                <cell>Governess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Heir</cell>
                                <cell>Heiress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Hero</cell>
                                <cell>Heroine</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Hunter</cell>
                                <cell>Huntress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Host</cell>
                                <cell>Hostess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Jew</cell>
                                <cell>Jewess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Lion</cell>
                                <cell>Lioness</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Marquis</cell>
                                <cell>Marchioness</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Mayor</cell>
                                <cell>Mayoress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Patron</cell>
                                <cell>Patroness</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Peer</cell>
                                <cell>Peeress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Prophet</cell>
                                <cell>Prophetess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Priest</cell>
                                <cell>Priestess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Poet</cell>
                                <cell>Poetess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Prince</cell>
                                <cell>Princess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Prior</cell>
                                <cell>Prioress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Protector</cell>
                                <cell>Protectress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Shepherd</cell>
                                <cell>Shepherdess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Songster</cell>
                                <cell>Songstress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Sorcerer</cell>
                                <cell>Sorceress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Sultan</cell>
                                <cell>Sultaness, or Sultana</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Tiger</cell>
                                <cell>Tigress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Traitor</cell>
                                <cell>Traitress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Tutor</cell>
                                <cell>Tutress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Tyrant</cell>
                                <cell>Tyranness</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Votary</cell>
                                <cell>Votaress</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Widower</cell>
                                <cell>Widow</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                        <pagebreak page_no="14"/>
                        3rd, <italic>By prefixing another word</italic>; as, Cock sparrow: hen sparrow; he goat: she goat; man servant: maid servant; male child: female child.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some nouns, are either masculine, or feminine; as, parent; child; infant; servant; neighbour; foal; calf; goat. These, and the name of any thing that does not possess life, are said to be neuter; that is, not to include the idea of gender; as, <italic>book, pen, milk</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXERCISES ON GENDER AND NUMBER.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Father, brothers, boys, book, loaf, arms, wife, hats, bottles, brush, goose, mouse, kings, queen, bread, glass, tooth, tongs, candle.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="5"><italic>Mode of using these exercises.</italic></heading>
                    <paragraph>Father; a noun, singular; (number) masculine; (gender) plural, fathers. Brothers; a noun, plural, masculine. Book; a noun, singular, neuter; plural, books. Mouse; a noun, singular, neuter.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                <heading level="3">SECTION II. OF ATTRIBUTIVE NOUNS.</heading>
                <paragraph>Attributive nouns, are the names of <ed_note type="correction">o-</ed_note> attributes; or of the qualities that distinguish <ed_note type="correction">disftinguish</ed_note> substances, or other things. They are either <italic>proper</italic> or <italic>common</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="15"/>
                <paragraph>Proper attributive nouns, represent, each, a <italic>particular</italic> attribute; as, <italic>whiteness, blackness, sweetness, bitterness, prudence, justice, pride, envy</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Common attributive nouns, represent, each a <italic>genus</italic> of attributes; as, <italic>colour, figure, flavour, odour, virtue, vice, error</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The only variation which these names admit, is that of number; and this is applied only to common names; as, <italic>colours, flavours, figures, odours, virtues, vices, errors</italic>.</paragraph>
                <heading level="3">SECTION III. OF ACTIVE NOUNS.</heading>
                <paragraph>Active nouns, are the names of actions. They are of two sorts, <italic>partial</italic> and <italic>complete</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Partial active nouns, are the names of actions <italic>in part</italic>, or began, but not finished; as, <italic>altering, trying, abstaining, selling, delivering</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Complete active nouns, are the names of actions, considered as <italic>complete</italic>, or <italic>entire</italic>; as, <italic>alteration, trial, abstinence, sale, delivery</italic>. These, generally admit the plural number; as, <italic>alterations, trials, sales, deliveries</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="16"/>
                <paragraph>Partial active nouns, being all proper names, do not admit of the plural number. Yet they are frequently used in the plural form; as, carpenter's <italic>shavings</italic>; the <italic>savings</italic> of penury. But when used in this way, they are evidently borrowed to supply a deficiency  of substantive nouns. So likewise, the <italic>incomings</italic>: the <italic>outgoings</italic>; and the like.</paragraph>
                <heading level="4">EXERCISES ON NOUNS, SUBSTANTIVE, ATTRIBUTIVE, AND ACTIVE.</heading>
                <paragraph>Man, books, prudence, possibility, John, eye, impediment, sheep, city, constancy, sleepiness, virtue, tables, leaf, freedom, Ireland, mountain, errors, accuracy, apples, house, trees, authenticity, colours, oak, corn, key, vapour, vanity, wheat, Dublin, widow. <linebreak/>Abridging, adoration, tobacco, brother, abstinence, abjuring, actor, executrix, believing, intentions, gander, motion, guilding, engagements, Shannon, Baron, loving, reverence, procuring, resolving.</paragraph>
                <heading level="3">SECTION IV. OF PERSONAL NOUNS.</heading>
                <paragraph>Personal nouns, are names, that refer in a direct manner, to the persons or things which they respectively represent. They are adapted to express <pagebreak page_no="17"/> the <italic>person</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, <italic>state</italic>, and <italic>gender</italic> of the subject.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The <italic>persons</italic> are three: 1st, the speaker; 2nd, the person addressed; 3d, the person or thing of which we speak. The <italic>numbers</italic> are two, <italic>singular</italic> and <italic>plural</italic>. The <italic>states</italic> are two, <italic>active</italic>, and <italic>objective</italic>. The <italic>genders</italic> are three, <italic>masculine</italic>, <italic>feminine</italic>, and <italic>neuter</italic>; that is, neither gender.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>The names adapted to shew these distinctions, are the following:
                    <table cols="5" rows="7">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Singular<ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                            <cell></cell>
                            <cell></cell>
                            <cell></cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Persons</cell>
                            <cell>Active state</cell>
                            <cell>Objective state</cell>
                            <cell>Active</cell>
                            <cell>Objective</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                            <cell>I</cell>
                            <cell>me</cell>
                            <cell>We</cell>
                            <cell>us</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                            <cell>Thou or you</cell>
                            <cell>Thee or you</cell>
                            <cell>Ye our you</cell>
                            <cell>You</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">3. <italic>mas.</italic></cell>
                            <cell>He</cell>
                            <cell>Him</cell>
                            <cell>They</cell>
                            <cell>Them</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">3. <italic>fem.</italic></cell>
                            <cell>She</cell>
                            <cell>her</cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">They</ed_note></cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">Them</ed_note></cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">3. <italic>neu.</italic></cell>
                            <cell>It</cell>
                            <cell>it</cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">They</ed_note></cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">Them</ed_note></cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>    
                    Sir, <italic>mas.</italic> Madam, <italic>fem.</italic> without regard to state.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>We use these names in the <italic>active state</italic>, when the person or thing is represented as the <italic>agent</italic>, or <italic>subject</italic>. But in the <italic>objective state</italic>, when the person or thing is represented as the object of an action, or of a relation:</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Thus, <italic>Active state</italic>. <italic>Agent</italic>; <italic>He</italic> came. <italic>They</italic> fled. <italic>Subject</italic>; <italic>I</italic> am pleased. <italic>We</italic> were there. <italic>Objective state</italic>; <italic>Object of an action</italic>; He <italic>warned them</italic>. I <pagebreak page_no="18"/> <italic>sent him</italic>. — <italic>Object of a relation</italic>; I sent him <italic>to her</italic>. They came <italic>with me</italic>. She relies <italic>on him</italic>.</paragraph>
                <heading level="4">EXERCISES ON PERSONAL NAMES.</heading>
                <paragraph>Sir, <italic>I</italic>, thee, we, you, me, he, us, she, ye, him, they, you, them, it, me, we, thou, her, I, ye, us, madam, him, she, thee, it, they, you, them, her, sir, him, he, ye, we.</paragraph>
                <heading level="4">EXAMPLES OF ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED.</heading>
                <heading level="5"><italic>With respect to person.</italic></heading>
                <paragraph>1. Thou and he shared it between <italic>them</italic>. 2. You and he are diligent in reading your books, therefore <italic>they</italic> are good boys. 3. My sister and I, waited till <italic>they</italic> were called. 4. You and the Gardener and the Huntsman, must share the blame of the business between <italic>them</italic>.</paragraph>
                <heading level="5"><italic>With respect to number.</italic></heading>
                <paragraph>5. A lampoon or a satire, does not carry in <italic>them</italic>, robbery or murder. 6. Man is not such a machine as a clock or a watch, which moves merely as <italic>they</italic> are moved. 7. Take handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle <italic>it</italic> towards heaven, in the sight of Pharaoh <ed_note type="correction">Pharoah</ed_note>, and <italic>it</italic> shall become small dust. 8. Can any person, on his entrance into the world, be sure that <italic>they</italic> shall not be deceived. 9. If one take a wrong method at first, it will lead <italic>them</italic> astray.</paragraph>
                <heading level="5"><italic>With respect to state.</italic></heading>
                <paragraph>10. Will you go with <italic>I</italic>? 11. Upon seeing <italic>I</italic> he turned pale. 12. Withhold not good from <italic>they</italic> <pagebreak page_no="19"/> who are entitled to it. 13. Great friendship subsists between <italic>he</italic> and <italic>I</italic>. 14. I would not act the same part if I were <italic>him</italic>. 15. I saw one whom I took to be <italic>she</italic>. 16. Let them and <italic>we</italic> unite to oppose this growing evil. 17. My brother and <italic>him</italic>, are tolerable grammarians. 18. You and <italic>us</italic>, enjoy many privileges. 19. She and <italic>him</italic>, are very unhappily united. 20. Between thee and <italic>I</italic>, there is some disparity of years; but none between him and <italic>she</italic>. 21. Him and <italic>her</italic> were of the same age.</paragraph>
                <heading level="5"><italic>With respect to gender.</italic></heading>
                <paragraph>22. She is the person who I understood <italic>it</italic> to have been. 23. Can a woman forget her child, that <italic>he</italic> should not have compassion on the son of her womb? 24. The Hercules man of war foundered at sea: <italic>she</italic> overset. 25. He so much resembled his brother, that I took <italic>it</italic> to be he. 26. I am certain <italic>it</italic> was not him. 27. Who is <italic>it</italic> that calls on me?</paragraph>
                <heading level="5"><italic>Used superfluously.</italic></heading>
                <paragraph>The king <italic>he</italic> is just. The men <italic>they</italic> were there. Many words <italic>they</italic> darken speech. My banks <italic>they</italic> are furnished with bees. The lofty city, he layeth <italic>it</italic> low. When <italic>he</italic>, the spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into all truth. For all the men that followed Baolpeor, the Lord thy God hath destroyed <italic>them</italic> from among you.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">CHAP. II. — Of <italic>Verbs</italic>.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">SECTION I. OF DEFINITIVE VERBS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Definitive verbs, are words used with nouns, to limit their signification, and to define, or ascertain the subject which the noun represents.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some definitives, are adapted, each to define a subject in the singular number; as, <italic>A</italic>, or <italic>an</italic>, <italic>another</italic>, <italic>each</italic>, <italic>every</italic>, <italic>either</italic>, <italic>neither</italic>, <italic>one</italic>, <italic>first</italic>, <italic>second</italic>, &amp;c. <italic>this</italic>, <italic>that</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some are adapted to define plural subjects; as, <italic>All, few, many, other, these, those, two, three</italic>, &amp;c. <italic>both</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some are equally adapted to each number; as, <italic>The, any, no, yon</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>The definitive verbs, that respect number, are used as follows.<linebreak/><small_caps>Singular.</small_caps> <italic>A</italic> man; <italic>another</italic> man; <italic>each</italic> man; <italic>every</italic> man; <italic>either of the</italic> men; <italic>one</italic> man; <italic>first</italic> man; <italic>second</italic> man, &amp;c. <italic>this</italic> man; <italic>that</italic> man; <italic>this</italic> is the book that I bought.<linebreak/> <italic>An</italic>, is used instead of <italic>a</italic>, before every <pagebreak page_no="21"/>word, with which a will not readily coalesce; as, <italic>an</italic> ox, <italic>an</italic> ass, <italic>an</italic> inch; <italic>an</italic> hour; but <italic>a</italic> is used before every word that requires it, and will coalesce with it; as, <italic>a</italic> unit, <italic>a</italic> ewe, such <italic>a</italic> one.<linebreak/><small_caps>Plural. </small_caps><italic>All</italic> men; <italic>few</italic> men; <italic>many</italic> men; <italic>other</italic> men; <italic>these</italic> men; <italic>those</italic> men; <italic>two</italic> men; &amp;c. <italic>both</italic> men.<linebreak/><small_caps>Singular, or Plural. </small_caps> <italic>The</italic> man, or men; <italic>any</italic> man, or men; <italic>yon</italic> man, or men; <italic>no</italic> man, or men.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Some definitives, are adapted to define subjects, as belonging to other subjects. These are derived from nouns, both proper and personal; as, <italic>John's, James's</italic>, (that is, Jameses) <italic>Henry's, My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, its</italic>. <italic>Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, of</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>These may be called possessive definitives. They are used as follows. <italic>John's</italic> pen; <italic>James’s</italic> pen. <italic>My</italic> pen; <italic>thy</italic> pen; <italic>his</italic> pen; &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Of</italic> is often used as a substitute for these definitives; thus, instead of saying <italic>Henry's</italic> son, we say the son <italic>of</italic> Henry.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>When the subject is understood, but not expressed, we say, <italic>mine, thine, his, hers</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>The definitive <italic>whose</italic>, defines a subject, <pagebreak page_no="22"/> as being the <italic>possessor</italic> of some other subject; as, He <italic>whose</italic> pen this is.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Who</italic>, and <italic>which</italic>, are adapted to define subjects, as being in the active state; or as being the subject of an affirmation; and <italic>whom</italic>, to define a subject in the objective state. Each of these require the assistance of a definitive phrase, and they are used thus; He <italic>who</italic> made this pen, (<italic>who</italic> is here assisted by the definitive phrase, <italic>made this pen</italic>.) He <italic>who</italic> preserves me, to <italic>whom</italic> I owe my being, <italic>whose</italic> I am, and <italic>whom</italic> I serve, is eternal.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Who</italic> is applied to persons; as, the master <italic>who</italic> taught us: the boy <italic>who</italic> reads. <italic>Whose</italic>, and <italic>whom</italic>, are likewise applied to persons.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Which</italic>, is applied to inferior animals, and to things without life; as, the horse <italic>which</italic> I sold: the book <italic>which</italic> you read. </paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>That</italic>, is often used instead of <italic>which</italic>; as, the dog <italic>which</italic>, or <italic>that</italic> barks; the book <italic>which</italic> or <italic>that</italic> was lost. And it is sometimes used instead of <italic>who</italic>; as, the boy <italic>who</italic> or <italic>that</italic> reads.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>What</italic>, is often used to supply the place of a noun, and the definitive <italic>which</italic>, or <italic>that</italic>; <pagebreak page_no="23"/>as, this is <italic>what</italic> I wanted; that is, <italic>the thing which</italic> I wanted.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Who</italic>, <italic>whose</italic>, <italic>which</italic>, and <italic>what</italic>, are used in asking questions; they are then called interrogatives; as, <italic>who</italic> said so? <italic>whose</italic> hat is this? <italic>which</italic> of them said it? <italic>what</italic> did he say?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>How</italic>, <italic>why</italic>, <italic>whether</italic>, are adapted to asking questions; as, <italic>how</italic> does he read? <italic>why</italic> do you say so? <italic>whether</italic> will you go now, or in the evening?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>Here</italic>, <italic>there</italic>, <italic>where</italic>, <italic>hither</italic>, <italic>thither</italic>, refer to <italic>place</italic>. <italic>Here</italic>, is equivalent to <italic>this place</italic>, <italic>there</italic>, to <italic>that place</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In definitives formed from nouns, as <italic>George's</italic>, the apostrophe supplies the place of the letter <italic>e</italic>; it would otherwise be <italic>Georgees</italic>. The <italic>s</italic> after the apostrophe, is generally omitted, when the definite ends with the sound of <italic>s</italic>, and the noun defined begins with <italic>s</italic>; as, for <italic>righteousness'</italic> sake; for <italic>conscience'</italic> sake: but not in other cases; as, <italic>James'</italic> book, should be <italic>James's</italic> book.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXAMPLES OF ERRORS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>1. <italic>A</italic> army. 2, <italic>an</italic> heart. 3, <italic>an</italic> horn. 4, <italic>a</italic> hour. 5, <italic>a</italic> ox. 6, <italic>an</italic> house. 7, I have not travelled <italic>this</italic> twenty years. 8, <italic>those</italic> sort of people fear nothing. 9. I am not recommending <italic>these</italic> kind of sufferings. 10. But <italic>this</italic> people, who have not known the law, <pagebreak page_no="24"/> are cursed. 11, I have no interests, but <italic>that</italic> of truth and virtue. 12, We are placed here under <italic>a</italic> trial of our virtue. 13, <italic>The</italic> profligate man, is seldom or never found to be <italic>the</italic> good husband; <italic>the</italic> good father; or <italic>the</italic> beneficent neighbour. 14, On <italic>either</italic> side of the river, was there the tree of life. 15, A man who had on <italic>every</italic> hand six fingers; and on <italic>every</italic> foot six toes. <linebreak/>16, <italic>Pompeys</italic> pillar. 17, <italic>Virtues</italic> reward. 18, A <italic>mans</italic> manners, frequently influence his fortune. 19, <italic>Asa his</italic> heart was perfect with the Lord. 20, <italic>Helen her</italic> beauty was the cause of <italic>Troy its</italic> destruction. 21, He asked his <italic>father</italic>, as well as his mother’s advice. 22, <italic>Moses'</italic> rod. 23, <italic>Herodes'</italic> sake. 24, James and I, are attentive to <italic>their</italic> studies. 25, When the nation complains, the rulers should listen to <italic>their</italic> voice. 26, Can any man on <italic>their</italic> entrance into the world. 27, A <italic>mothers</italic> tenderness, and a <italic>fathers</italic> care, are <italic>natures</italic> gifts, for <italic>mans</italic> advantage. 28, He who pricketh the heart, and maketh it to show <italic>her</italic> knowledge. 29, Learning hath <italic>his</italic> infancy, when it is but beginning, and almost childish; then <italic>his</italic> youth, when it is luxuriant and juvenile; then <italic>his</italic> strength of years, when it is solid and reduced; and lastly <italic>his</italic> old age, when it waxeth dry and exhaust. 30, The committee were divided in <italic>its</italic> sentiments.  <linebreak/>31. The man <italic>who</italic> he raised from obscurity. 32. They are the persons <italic>who</italic> we ought to respect. 33. They <italic>who</italic> opulence has made proud, and <italic>who</italic> luxury has corrupted, are not happy. 34. <italic>Who</italic> do you live with? 35. Pleasure <italic>whose</italic> nature. 36. Call every production <italic>whose</italic> parts, and <italic>whose</italic> nature. 37. Flattery <italic>whose</italic> nature is. 38. The question <pagebreak page_no="25"/><italic>whose</italic> solution I require.  39. The fruit of that forbidden tree, <italic>whose</italic> mortal taste. 40. <italic>Whom</italic> do men say that I am? 41. <italic>Whom</italic> think ye that I am? 42. Let him be <italic>whom</italic> he may. 43. <italic>Whom</italic> is there that can subsist by himself? 44. That is the student to <italic>whom</italic> I gave the book; and <italic>whom</italic>, I am persuaded, deserves it. 45. The exercise of reason, appears as little in these sportsmen, as in the beasts <italic>whom</italic> they sometimes hunt, and by <italic>whom</italic> they are sometimes hunted. 46. They <italic>which</italic> seek wisdom will certainly find her. 47. The wheel killed another man, <italic>which</italic> is the sixth <italic>which</italic> have lost their lives. 48. Our Father <italic>which</italic> art in heaven. 49. The man is prudent <italic>which</italic> speaks little. 50. He would not be persuaded but <italic>what</italic> I was greatly in fault.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="5"><small_caps>Errors by omitting definitives; and by using them superfluously.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>51. <gap/> Wisest and best men, sometimes commit errors. 52. Reason was given to <italic>a</italic> man, to control his passions. 53. <italic>A</italic> man is the noblest work of the creation. 54. <italic>The</italic> fire, <italic>the</italic> air, <italic>the</italic> earth, and <italic>the</italic> water, are <gap/> four elements of the philosophers. 55. Beware of drunkenness; it impairs <gap/> understanding; wastes an estate; destroys <italic>a</italic> reputation; consumes <gap/> body; and renders <gap/> man of the brightest parts, a common jest of <gap/> meanest clown. 56. He is a much better writer than <italic>a</italic> reader. 57. The king has conferred on him the title of <italic>a</italic> duke. 58. Some evils of life, equally affect <gap/> prince and <gap/> people. 59. We must act our part with constancy; though <gap/> reward of <gap/> constancy be distant. 60. <italic>The</italic> virtues like his are not easily acquired. 61. <folio folio_no="B"/><pagebreak page_no="26"/>Such qualities honour the nature of <italic>a</italic> man. 62. He has been much censured for paying <italic>a</italic> little attention to his business.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">SECTION II. OF DESCRIPTIVE VERBS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Descriptive verbs, are words added to nouns, to express the attributes or qualities of subjects. They are chiefly derived from attributive nouns; as from the noun <italic>goodness</italic>, we derive the verb <italic>good</italic>; from <italic>blackness</italic>, <italic>black</italic>; from <italic>industry</italic>, <italic>industrious</italic>; from <italic>prudence</italic>, <italic>prudent</italic>: from <italic>wisdom</italic>, <italic>wise</italic>; from <italic>solidity</italic>, <italic>solid</italic>. Some are derived from substantive nouns; as, from <italic>water</italic>, <italic>watery</italic>; from <italic>earth</italic>, <italic>earthy</italic>; from <italic>man</italic>, <italic>manly</italic></paragraph>
                    <paragraph>They are used thus; A <italic>good</italic> boy; a <italic>black</italic> horse; an <italic>industrious</italic> man; a <italic>prudent</italic> woman; <italic>solid</italic> food; <italic>wise</italic> men; <italic>watery</italic> diet; we expect <italic>manly</italic> conduct from you, not <italic>childish</italic> behaviour.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXAMPLES OF ERRORS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>1. A <italic>wise</italic> man would have guarded against it. 2. A <italic>prudent</italic> man, would have taken better means to secure success. 3. He was very <italic>dexterous</italic> at whist. 4. He was very <italic>skilful</italic> at hand ball. 5. To save your house from neighbouring fire is <italic>hard</italic>. 6. Use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake, and thine <italic>often</italic> infirmities.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="27"/>
                    <heading level="3">SECTION III. OF ASCRIPTIVE VERBS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>An ascriptive verb, is a word that represents an action, as referable to an agent: and that, when added to a noun, ascribes the action to the agent which the noun represents; as, I <italic>walk</italic>; George <italic>rides</italic>; Jane <italic>reads</italic>; they <italic>write</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Ascriptive verbs, are of two kinds, <italic>habitual</italic> and <italic>complete</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>An <italic>habitual</italic> ascriptive verb, expresses an action; and implies that the agent is in the habit of performing it; as, I <italic>love</italic>; I <italic>walk</italic>; I <italic>correct</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>A <italic>complete</italic> ascriptive verb, expresses an action, and implies that the agent has completed, finished it; as, I <italic>loved</italic>; I <italic>walked</italic>; I <italic>corrected</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>These verbs, are derived from active nouns; as, from the noun <italic>loving</italic>, the verbs <italic>love</italic>, and <italic>loved</italic>, are derived; from <italic>walking</italic>, the verbs <italic>walk</italic>, and <italic>walked</italic>; from <italic>correcting</italic>, the verbs <italic>correct</italic>, and <italic>corrected</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Habitual ascriptive verbs, are generally varied in their forms, that they <folio folio_no="B2"/><pagebreak page_no="28"/>may coalesce the more smoothly with the different personal names; thus, I, we, you, ye, they, <italic>love</italic>; thou <italic>lovest</italic>; he <italic>loveth</italic> or <italic>loves</italic>. And also to coalesce with other nouns, as being singular or plural; thus, Charles <italic>learns</italic>, or <italic>learneth</italic> fast; but Hugh and Thomas <italic>learn</italic> faster. This boy <italic>readeth</italic>, or <italic>reads</italic> well; but these boys <italic>read</italic> better.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>These variations are not used in a conditional phrase or sentence; as, Unless he <italic>repent</italic>, he will not be pardoned. If a man <italic>smite</italic> his servant, and he <italic>die</italic>, he shall surely be put to death. Despise not any condition, lest it <italic>happen</italic> to be thy own. "Either Thomas or thou <italic>hast</italic> spilled the ink on my paper." <judgement tedency="negative" type="correction">This is improper</judgement>; it is confounding two different forms of the verb. It should be, "Either Thomas <italic>has</italic> spilled the ink, or thou hast." "John or I <italic>have</italic> done it;" should be, "John <italic>has</italic> done it, or I <italic>have</italic> done it."</paragraph>
                    <heading level="4">EXAMPLES OF ERRORS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>1. I <italic>loves</italic> reading. 2. In him we live and <italic>moves</italic>. 3. And wheresoever thou <italic>turns</italic> thy view. 4. He <italic>dare</italic> not act. 5. He <italic>need</italic> not proceed. 6. <italic>Has</italic> thou no better reason for it? 7. Thou art he who <italic>breathest</italic> on the earth: and who <italic>coverest</italic> it with verdure. 8. For thee who ever <italic>felt</italic> anothers woe. 9. Thou art he who <italic>driedst</italic> up the red sea. 10. The people <italic>has</italic> no opinion of their own. 11. I am the man who <italic>command</italic> you. 12. I am the person <pagebreak page_no="29"/>who <italic>adopt</italic> that sentiment. 13. I am a man who <italic>speak</italic> but seldom. 14. Why <italic>do</italic> this generation seek after a sign? 15. The rich and the poor <italic>meets</italic> together. 16. John and I <italic>reads</italic> better than you. 17. Wisdom, virtue, happiness, <italic>dwells</italic> with the golden mediocrity. 18. Luxurious living, and high pleasures, <italic>begets</italic> a languor and satiety. 19. Blessing and cursing, <italic>proceedeth</italic> out of the same mouth. 20. A lampoon, or a satire, <italic>do</italic> not carry in them. 21. A judicious arrangement of studies, <italic>facilitate</italic> improvement. 22. A variety of pleasing objects, <italic>charm</italic> the eye. 23. A few pangs of conscience, now and then, <italic>interrupts</italic> his pleasures; and <italic>whispers</italic> to him. 24. Frequent commission of crimes, <italic>harden</italic> the heart. 25. If he <italic>acquires</italic> riches. 26. If he <italic>does</italic> but intimate his desire. 27. Though he <italic>falls</italic>, he shall not be utterly cast down. 28. If he <italic>does</italic> but promise. 29. Let him that is sanguine, lake heed, lest he <italic>miscarries</italic>. 30. Though he <italic>urges</italic> me yet more earnestly, I will not comply, unless he <italic>advances</italic> more forcible reasons. 31. If thou <italic>dost</italic> not forgive. 32. If one man <italic>prefers</italic> a life of industry: If another <italic>prefers</italic> a life of gaiety. 33. On condition that he <italic>comes</italic>, I will consent to stay. 34. If virtue <italic>rewards</italic> us not. 35. Whether he <italic>confesses</italic> or not. 36. If thou <italic>censurest</italic> uncharitably. 37. If thou <italic>hast</italic> promised.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Complete ascriptive verbs also, are varied in their forms, for the ease of pronunciation. These verbs are generally formed, by adding to the habitual verb, <italic>ed</italic>; or <italic>d</italic> only, when this verb ends in <italic>e</italic>; as, <italic>turns, turned; love, loved</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="30"/>
                    <paragraph></paragraph>
 
 
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            <div1 description="main_text" name="Syntax.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Syntax.</small_caps></heading>
 
 
 
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        </div0>        
        <div0 description="back_matter">
            <div1 description="index">
                <heading level="1">INDEX.</heading>
 
 
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    </grammar_text>
</grammar_book>