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Alexander: Young Lady and Gentleman's Guide (1833)

Last Change: 20.01.2016

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<grammar_book>
    <grammar_header>
        <gr_id>5</gr_id>
        <gr_author_id>2</gr_author_id>
        <gr_last_edit by="Gather, Kirsten">20.01.2016</gr_last_edit>
        <gr_author>Alexander, Levy</gr_author>
        <gr_author_gender>Male</gr_author_gender>
        <gr_education></gr_education>
        <gr_occupation></gr_occupation>
        <gr_title>The Young Lady and Gentleman's Guide to the Grammar of the English Language, in Verse; Adapted to the Use of Seminaries and Private Families</gr_title>
        <gr_short_title>Young Lady and Gentleman's Guide</gr_short_title>
        <gr_publisher>L. Alexander, Printer, 277, Whitechapel Road; J. Haddon, Printer, Castle-street, Finsbury</gr_publisher>
        <gr_place_of_publication>London</gr_place_of_publication>
        <gr_year_publication>1833</gr_year_publication>
        <gr_year_edition>1835</gr_year_edition>
        <gr_no_edition>2</gr_no_edition>
        <gr_no_of_pages>119</gr_no_of_pages>
        <gr_no_of_words></gr_no_of_words>
        <gr_language>English</gr_language>
        <gr_variety>British English</gr_variety>
        <gr_type>Teaching Grammar, Entertainment Grammar</gr_type>
        <gr_form>Verse</gr_form>
        <gr_target_audience>Other</gr_target_audience>
        <gr_level>Intermediate</gr_level>
        <gr_target_audience_author>Youth of Great Britain, Young Ladies and Gentlemen</gr_target_audience_author>
    </grammar_header>
    <grammar_text>
        <div0 description="front_matter">
            <div1 description="title_page">
                THE YOUNG LADY AND GENTLEMAN'S GUIDE TO THE GRAMMAR OF THE English Language,  IN VERSE; ADAPTED TO THE USE OF SEMINARIES AND PRIVATE FAMILIES.<linebreak/>
BY L. ALEXANDER, Typ. Lond.
Author of the Hebrew Ritual; the Life of Benjamin Goldsmid, Esq., &amp;c</div1>
            <div1 description="initial quotation">"A verse will find him who a Sermon flies."- Dr. Watts.</div1>
            <div1 description="imprint">LONDON: PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR; AND S0LD BY SHERWOOD, GILBERT, AND PIPER, PATERNOSTER ROW, AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 1835.</div1>
            <pagebreak page_no=""/>
            <div1 description="imprint">J. Haddon, Printer, Castle-street, Finsbury.</div1>
            <pagebreak page_no=""/>
            <div1 description="dedication" name="To the Youth of Great Britain">
                <heading level="1">TO THE YOUTH OF GREAT BRITAIN.</heading>
                <paragraph>Youthful Readers, In this age of improvement, I have ventured to lay a trap, in order, if possible, to attract you to the study of your mother tongue; a study the most important, and indispensable to your future respectability and usefulness in society. In the work here dedicated to you, by one who seeks your welfare, you will find both amusement and instruction. The most familiar ideas are rendered <pagebreak page_no="iv"/> into verse, and the rules of languages, where it was not practicable to reduce them to Poetry, are explained and illustrated in copious Notes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> To you, on whom the future destiny of our nation so much depends, this little Work is dedicated, by Your humble servant, THE AUTHOR. </paragraph>
            </div1>
        </div0>
        <div0 description="main_body">
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Introduction">
                <heading level="1">Introduction.</heading>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Many</small_caps> and various have been the attempts of the learned to render the acquirement of the English language easy to youth; many Grammars have been written; much has been said on the subject; and many systems have been laid before the public, all of which possess some excellencies peculiar to the plans adopted by their respective authors. Bishop Lowth's, Dr. Priestley's, and the Rev. Mr. Lindley Murray's Grammars, have been deservedly esteemed, and much used; but those eminent men themselves, when they were instructed in Latin, learned the principal part of the language from rules composed in verse, that (because found most efficacious in fixing the rules on their memory) being the method adopted in all the Grammar schools, not only in this country, but in all the nations of Europe. And the rules in the Greek Grammar used at Westminster are also composed in verse.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>If, then, it be found so generally necessary and advantageous to imprint the rules of the Roman and Greek languages on the minds of youth, we are at a loss to conceive why a similar advantage might not <pagebreak page_no="vi"/> be expected to arise from adopting the same method to instil into the minds of the rising generation the grammatical principles of the English language; and the more especially when we consider that children will get in memory a hundred lines of poetry in much less time than they will be able to accomplish a fourth part of that number if written in prose. Besides, it is the practice of our most celebrated and eminent schoolmasters to furnish their pupils with pieces of poetry to get in their minds, so that they may be rehearsed at the periods of their vacations; and those who have poetical extracts.to imprint on their memories receive the task with .pleasure, and perform their duty with alacrity, while those who have extracts in prose assigned them receive the mandate with dread, and labour hard to acquit themselves with decency.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Such considerations have, therefore, induced us to lay before a discerning public a Grammar of the language we now speak in the most easy, familiar, and compendious method that we could possibly contrive. Nor have we rejected the usual terms of grammar, for the sake of introducing others, but. have accommodated our language to the common appellations of noun substantive, adjective, pronoun, verb, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>And that every part of this Guide to the Grammar of the English Language might be serviceable and instructive to young ladies and gentlemen, we have been at some pains to put all the rules into as smooth <pagebreak page_no="vii"/> and sonorous verse as the nature of the subject would allow, so that nothing might appear obscure or unintelligible; and, to throw greater light on the various parts, we have, under every rule, where it seemed necessary, added an explanation in prose by way of note, which method has been adopted by some learned grammarians on the Continent, whose grammars have met with general approbation. It must, however, be acknowledged that, from the nature of the examples, it was frequently necessary to introduce some of the verses run less harmoniously than the rest; but we believe it will be seen that the number of them is not great.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>In all our researches we have never met with any solid objection against this method of conveying information, for its superior excellence is evident from the very nature of the thing; and we see outlines of grammar, and explanations of some arithmetical rules and tables, exhibited on cards, which have been found useful in their way. Hence it is abundantly clear, that verse is by far more easily learned, and better retained in memory than prose; and English verse, by reason of the rhymes, yields a much greater assistance to the learner than Latin verse, because the sound of the end of one line reminds the person of a similar sound in the other of the same couplet. And we are the more fully confirmed in our opinion on this subject, by what an excellent author of good reputation has advanced concerning this mode of conveying information: "All men paid great respect <pagebreak page_no="viii"/> to the poets," says he, “who gave them so delightful an entertainment. The wiser sort took this opportunity of civilizing the rest, by putting all their theological and philosophical instructions into verse, which, being learned with pleasure and retained with ease, helped to heighten and preserve the veneration already, upon other scores, paid to the poets."</paragraph>
                <paragraph>By the mode here laid down, no young person will be under the necessity of burdening his memory with any thing more than is absolutely necessary to furnish him with a sufficient knowledge of the principles of his mother tongue, an acquaintance with which is so requisite in all the transactions of life.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Since nothing can be more proper to acquire a just knowledge of any art or science than a clear and judicious method, we have taken particular care, in the following work, to pay strict attention to all the rules of the several parts of grammar, according to the best models. Thus, we have treated,</paragraph>
                <paragraph>First, of <small_caps>Orthography</small_caps>, which relates to letters, syllables, and words; showing the names, sounds, and properties of the several letters of the alphabet, their combinations into syllables, and the formation of syllables into words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Secondly, <small_caps>Etymology</small_caps>, which has relation to the several parts of speech, showing their inflections or variations; and likewise the manner in which they are derived.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Thirdly, <small_caps>Syntax</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Construction</small_caps>, which is the <pagebreak page_no="ix"/> right ordering of words in a sentence, so as to render the meaning clear, distinct, and intelligible.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>And, fourthly, <small_caps>Prosody</small_caps>, which has regard to the accent or true pronunciation of words, and the laws of versification, all which has been attended to in a more particular manner than is to be found in any other grammar. And we may, without vanity, assert that none of the public schools in this country, and perhaps in Europe, has a course of Prosody equal to that which is here laid before the student. We have here laid down rules for marking the several accents or quantities of words, and what each sort of verse requires; but, for a fuller and more ample elucidation of this subject, we refer the student to the rules and observations which we have given in that part of our Grammar which treats of prosody.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>It may, however, be necessary to speak somewhat more particularly; and we must therefore observe that, in the composition of the following Grammar, as before hinted, we have paid strict attention to the terms usually given by the best and most celebrated grammarians to the different parts of speech, because we are fully convinced of the justness of the observation which has been made by some of our predecessors, that it would be a very trifling, as well as a very dangerous attempt, to teach the art of English Grammar in a new language. In treating of the conjugation of verbs, we have thought it most advisable to present the scholar with an active and a passive verb regularly conjugated, without interruption, <pagebreak page_no="x"/> through all the moods, tenses, numbers, and persons; except in the appellations of the tenses, which we have thought proper to turn into English, because it is not to be supposed, that a mere English student should fully comprehend the meaning of the terms generally employed, which are borrowed from the Latin. Thus, we have called the present tense the present time or tense; the preter-imperfect, the imperfectly past; the preterite or preter-perfect, the perfectly past; the preter-pluperfect, more than past; the future-imperfect tense we have denominated the first future, or future imperfectly past; and the future-perfect tense we have called the second future, or future perfectly past; which terms, we think there can be no doubt, will be much better understood by the mere English student than those which are derived from any foreign language.</paragraph>        
                <paragraph>On the subject of the derivation of words, which is an essential part of Etymology, we have thought fit to be rather particular, because it is as necessary that the learner should be acquainted with the proper derivation of one word from another, as it is that he should know what part of speech it belongs to. We are aware that several plans have been laid down for pointing out the derivation of words in the English, but, notwithstanding what has been advanced on this head, we may venture to say that the method contained in the following work will be found less liable to exception than that of most other grammarians.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="xi"/>
                <paragraph>We are now to speak of Syntax, which sets before us rules for the proper disposition and right ordering of words in sentences, as we have before observed, so as to render the language clear, distinct, and perfectly intelligible to the reader; or, as it is not improperly called by some, Construction. It shows the regular connexion of the words, agreeably to nature, in the formation or construction of a sentence, which is, in general, more particularly regarded by the English, and some other modern nations, in the composition of their Grammars, than by the ancients. In short, we have endeavoured to be clear, explicit, and ample, without being intricate or tedious, "because we consider this part of Grammar not only as one of the most important, but that in which many good writers are most liable to err. We readily admit that the construction of the English language is in some measure irregular, and, consequently, not so easily reducible to rules which shall hold good in every case without exception; and this, we imagine, is one of the principal reasons which have induced some grammarians to omit it altogether. Mr. Johnson, whose Grammar was greatly esteemed at one period, has comprised it in ten or twelve lines; and Dr. Johnson, in the epitome prefixed to his English Dictionary, has spoken of it in fifteen lines only. Dr. Priestley has dispatched it in somewhat less than three pages; though he appears to have supplied that defect, in some measure, by the notes and observations which he has made at the end of his Grammar.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="xii"/>
                <paragraph><reference referenced="Lowth, Robert" judgemental="1" type="reference">Bishop Lowth</reference>, who seems to have undertaken the composition of his Grammar principally with a design to explain the rules of Syntax, has, partly in his text, but still more copiously in his notes, treated the subject in <judgement type="praise" addressee_explicit="Lowth, Robert" tedency="positive">a very clear and comprehensive manner</judgement> manner; but the Grammars of the three last eminent scholars seem better calculated for men of letters than for youth at school. The Syntax of <reference type="reference" referenced="Murray, Lindley" source="English Grammar Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners, 1795" judgemental="1">Mr. Lindley Murray</reference>'s Grammar is, however, <judgement type="acknowledgment" addressee_explicit="Murray, Lindley" tedency="positive">adapted to the service of both</judgement>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>To impress the rules of Syntax more firmly in the student's memory, We have inserted a separate portion on the Grammatical Resolution of Sentences, in which the various parts of speech, and the dependance of one word upon another, are carefully explained, as well with regard to the construction as to the etymology. In this part, where any word occurs oftener than once in the same example, a reference is made to the former explanation of the same word; so that every example contains a full and distinct account of every word of which it is composed.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Although we have spoken of prosody before, yet it may not be improper to observe that, while the scholar is employed in learning the rules adapted to this part, he might be exercised to advantage, by reading every day an extract from one of our best poets : indeed, it is an observation that has been frequently made, that the reading of poetry is the most effectual method of learning to read even prose with propriety and elegance.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no=""/>
            <div1 description="table_of_contents" name="Contents">
                <heading level="1">CONTENTS.</heading>
                <paragraph>
                    <toc>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>Introduction</section_name>
                            <page_no>5</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>Of Grammar in General</section_name>
                            <page_no>15</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name><small_caps>Orthography</small_caps></section_name>
                            <page_no>16</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Letters</section_name>
                            <page_no>16</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Vowels</section_name>
                            <page_no>16</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Double Vowels, or Diphthongs</section_name>
                            <page_no>18</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Treble Vowels, or Triphthongs</section_name>
                            <page_no>18</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Consonants</section_name>
                            <page_no>19</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Syllables</section_name>
                            <page_no>22</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name><small_caps>Etymology</small_caps></section_name>
                            <page_no>24</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of the Article</section_name>
                            <page_no>24</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Nouns</section_name>
                            <page_no>25</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="3">
                            <section_name>Of Number</section_name>
                            <page_no>26</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="3">
                            <section_name>Of Case</section_name>
                            <page_no>28</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="3">
                            <section_name>Of Gender</section_name>
                            <page_no>29</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Adjectives</section_name>
                            <page_no>30</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Pronouns</section_name>
                            <page_no>31</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Verbs</section_name>
                            <page_no>33</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Adverbs</section_name>
                            <page_no>64</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Prepositions</section_name>
                            <page_no>65</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Conjunctions</section_name>
                            <page_no>67</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Interjections</section_name>
                            <page_no>69</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>The Derivation of Words</section_name>
                            <page_no>70</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name><small_caps>Syntax</small_caps></section_name>
                            <page_no>78</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>The Construction of Articles</section_name>
                            <page_no>78</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Nouns</section_name>
                            <page_no>78</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Adjectives</section_name>
                            <page_no>81</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Pronouns</section_name>
                            <page_no>82</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Verbs</section_name>
                            <page_no>83</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Adverbs</section_name>
                            <page_no>84</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Prepositions</section_name>
                            <page_no>84</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Conjunctions</section_name>
                            <page_no>86</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">The Counstruction of</ed_note> Interjections</section_name>
                            <page_no>86</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>The Grammatical Resolution of Sentences</section_name>
                            <page_no>87</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name><small_caps>Prosody</small_caps>; or the True Pronunciation of Words, and the Laws of Versification</section_name>
                            <page_no>92</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Accent and Quantity</section_name>
                            <page_no>93</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of Versification ; or the Laws of Poetical Composition</section_name>
                            <page_no>99</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>The Art of Pointing</section_name>
                            <page_no>112</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name>Of the Comma</section_name>
                            <page_no>113</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Semicolon</section_name>
                            <page_no>115</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Colon</section_name>
                            <page_no>115</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Period</section_name>
                            <page_no>116</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Interrogation</section_name>
                            <page_no>116</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Exclamation, or Admiration</section_name>
                            <page_no>117</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="2">
                            <section_name><ed_note type="addition">Of the</ed_note> Parenthesis</section_name>
                            <page_no>117</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>Different Characters made use of in Composition</section_name>
                            <page_no>117</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>The Use of Capital Letters</section_name>
                            <page_no>118</page_no>
                        </entry>
                        <entry level="1">
                            <section_name>Of Paragraphs</section_name>
                            <page_no>119</page_no>
                        </entry>
                    </toc>
                </paragraph>
            </div1>
        </div0>
        <pagebreak page_no=""/>
        <div0 description="main_body" name="An English Grammar in Verse">
            <heading_undefined>AN <bold>ENGLISH GRAMMAR</bold> IN VERSE.</heading_undefined>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Grammar in General">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Grammar in General.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>
                    <l>Grammar doth all the art most truly teach,</l>  
                    <l>According to the use of every speech,</l>
                    <l>How we our thoughts most justly may express,</l>
                    <l>In words together join’d in sentences.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">Grammar, therefore, is the art of communicating our thoughts by words in the plainest and most intelligible manner, and with the strictest propriety, both in speaking and writing.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph type="footnote">It is called an art, because it consists of certain rules, drawn from the observations of learned men upon the works of the best authors.
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph type="footnote">And it is emphatically termed the art of communicating our thoughts by words, because they are other methods of conveying our ideas, such as <italic>looks</italic>, <italic>gestures</italic>, <italic>pointing</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph type="footnote">English Grammar is, consequently, the art of writing and speaking the English language with propriety and correctness.</paragraph>
                    </footnote></l>
                    <l>Into Four Parts the learn'd this art divide,</l> 
                    <l>The first, <small_caps>Orthography</small_caps>, we must decide;</l>
                    <l>Which treats of letters, syllables, and words,</l>
                    <l>Showing, by rules, what most with each accords:</l>
                    <l>The second, <small_caps>Etymology</small_caps>, extends</l>
                    <l>To parts of speech, and rules for them commends;</l> 
                    <l>Likewise of words it shows how they’re derived,</l>
                    <l>By which the English tongue so much has thrived:</l>
                    <l>Syntax, the third, on sentences does dwell,</l>
                    <l>Showing how they are form'd in language well:</l>
                    <l>The fourth, and last, is called <small_caps>Prosody</small_caps>,</l>
                    <l>And treats of accent and of poetry.</l>
                </paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="16"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Orthography">
                <heading level="1">ORTHOGRAPHY.</heading>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Letters.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>A letter is an uncompounded sound,</l>
                        <l>Of which there no division can be found:</l><footnote indicator="Asterisk">A letter, therefore, is a character, or mark, which denotes the various motions or positions of the instruments of speech, either in producing or terminating sounds: or, letters are marks or signs, which express the several sounds made use of in conveying our thoughts to each other in speech.</footnote>
                        <l>These sounds to certain characters we fix,</l>
                        <l>Which in the English tongue are twenty-six.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <heading_undefined><italic>The Alphabet.</italic></heading_undefined>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="3" rows="27">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Roman</cell>
                                <cell>Italic</cell>
                                <cell>Name</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>a</cell>
                                <cell><italic>a</italic></cell>
                                <cell>ay</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>b</cell>
                                <cell><italic>b</italic></cell>
                                <cell>bee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>c</cell>
                                <cell><italic>c</italic></cell>
                                <cell>cee<ed_note type="correction">jee</ed_note></cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>d</cell>
                                <cell><italic>d</italic></cell>
                                <cell>dee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>e</cell>
                                <cell><italic>e</italic></cell>
                                <cell>ee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>f</cell>
                                <cell><italic>f</italic></cell>
                                <cell>ef</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>g</cell>
                                <cell><italic>g</italic></cell>
                                <cell>jee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>h</cell>
                                <cell><italic>h</italic></cell>
                                <cell>aitch</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>i</cell>
                                <cell><italic>i</italic></cell>
                                <cell>eye</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>j</cell>
                                <cell><italic>j</italic></cell>
                                <cell>jay</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>k</cell>
                                <cell><italic>k</italic></cell>
                                <cell>kay</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>l</cell>
                                <cell><italic>l</italic></cell>
                                <cell>el</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>m</cell>
                                <cell><italic>m</italic></cell>
                                <cell>em</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>n</cell>
                                <cell><italic>n</italic></cell>
                                <cell>en</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>o</cell>
                                <cell><italic>o</italic></cell>
                                <cell>o</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>p</cell>
                                <cell><italic>p</italic></cell>
                                <cell>pee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>q</cell>
                                <cell><italic>q</italic></cell>
                                <cell>kew</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>r</cell>
                                <cell><italic>r</italic></cell>
                                <cell>ar</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>s</cell>
                                <cell><italic>s</italic></cell>
                                <cell>ess</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>t</cell>
                                <cell><italic>t</italic></cell>
                                <cell>tee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>u</cell>
                                <cell><italic>u</italic></cell>
                                <cell>you</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>v</cell>
                                <cell><italic>v</italic></cell>
                                <cell>vee</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>w</cell>
                                <cell><italic>w</italic></cell>
                                <cell>double you</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>x</cell>
                                <cell><italic>x</italic></cell>
                                <cell>eks</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>y</cell>
                                <cell><italic>y</italic></cell>
                                <cell>wy</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>z</cell>
                                <cell><italic>z</italic></cell>
                                <cell>zed</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Vowels.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Under two heads the letters must be plac'd;</l> 
                        <l>The first holds vowels, consonants the last.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="17"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>A vowel by itself complete is found.</l>
                        <l>Made in the throat, one full and perfect sound,<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">A vowel is a simple articulate sound, formed by the impulse of the voice, and by opening the mouth in a particular manner; being thereby perfectly pronounced without the aid of any other letter.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                        <l>Five letters only we can vowels call,</l>
                        <l>For <italic>a</italic>, <italic>e</italic>, <italic>i</italic>, <italic>o</italic>, <italic>u</italic>, comprise them all.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">Although we have said that <italic>a</italic>, <italic>e</italic>, <italic>i</italic>, <italic>o</italic>, <italic>u</italic>, contain the whole of the vowels, yet <italic>w</italic> and <italic>y</italic>, when at the end of syllables or words, are vowels also; but when they begin words or syllables they are consonants</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>To each of these two different sounds belong;</l>
                        <l>One that is <italic>short</italic>, another that is <italic>long</italic>:</l>
                        <l>Five <italic>double vowels</italic> add, to fill the vocal throng.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Beside the <italic>long</italic> and <italic>short</italic>, to <italic>a</italic> does fall</l>
                        <l>A sound that's <italic>broad</italic>, as in <italic>all</italic>, <italic>call</italic>, and <italic>ball</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>A</italic>'s <italic>short</italic> when single consonants conclude,</l>
                        <l>Or two such letters in the midst intrude,</l>
                        <l>Or seem in sound to take the middle part;</l>
                        <l>But final <italic>e</italic> doth length to these impart:</l>
                        <l>Thus <italic>a</italic> is short in <italic>bat</italic>, likewise in <italic>battle</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Mad</italic>, <italic>mangle</italic>, <italic>man</italic>, <italic>cat</italic>, <italic>can</italic>, and <italic>cattle</italic>.</l>
                        <l>'Tis always short in <italic>habit</italic>, <italic>dragon</italic>, <italic>banish</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And longer words, as <italic>natural</italic>, <italic>evanish</italic>.</l>
                        <l>Whenever silent <italic>e</italic> is in the close,</l>
                        <l>Then <italic>a</italic> is long we rightly do suppose;</l>
                        <l>As will appear in <italic>bat</italic>, <italic>bate</italic>, <italic>can</italic>, and <italic>cane</italic>,</l>
                        <l>In <italic>bad</italic>, <italic>bade</italic>; <italic>mad</italic>, <italic>made</italic>; <italic>man</italic>, <italic>mane</italic>; <italic>ban</italic>, and <italic>bane</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>E</italic> is of different sound, and various use,</l>
                        <l>Silent itself, all vowels does produce;</l>
                        <l>Although 'tis mute, yet sometimes it is found</l>
                        <l>To lengthen ev'en its own preceding sound,</l>
                        <l>As we in <italic>scene</italic> and <italic>glebe</italic>, and others find;</l>
                        <l>But <italic>e</italic> is mostly of the shorter kind;</l>
                        <l>As in <italic>wet</italic>, <italic>let</italic>, <italic>well</italic>, <italic>met</italic>, and <italic>rest</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>fret</italic>, <italic>help</italic>, <italic>left</italic>, <italic>bed</italic>, <italic>den</italic>, and <italic>blest</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>I</italic> before <italic>r</italic> doth sound like <italic>u</italic>; as, <italic>flirt</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Likewise in <italic>first</italic>, <italic>thirst</italic>, <italic>skirt</italic>, <italic>third</italic>, <italic>sir</italic>, and <italic>dirt</italic>;</l>
                    <pagebreak page_no="18"/>                    
                        <l><italic>I</italic> before <italic>r</italic> another sound does suit,</l>
                        <l>As in <italic>irreverent</italic>, <italic>irresolute</italic>.</l>
                        <l>It sounds like <italic>ee</italic>, as may be seen,</l>
                        <l>In words like these, <italic>machine</italic> and <italic>magazine</italic>.</l>
                        <l>And yet to sound like <italic>y</italic> it does incline,</l>
                        <l>In <italic>joint</italic>, <italic>appoint</italic>, <italic>boil</italic>, <italic>broil</italic>, <italic>toil</italic>, <italic>moil</italic>, and <italic>join</italic>.</l>
                        <l>No English word can end in naked <italic>i</italic>,</l>
                        <l>But in its stead we always put a <italic>y</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>O</italic> doth express more sorts of sound than one,</l>
                        <l>Long <italic>o</italic> in <italic>go</italic>, but like <italic>short u</italic> in <italic>son</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Two sounds in <italic>u</italic> we easily do find;</l>
                        <l><italic>Rub</italic>'s of the shorter, <italic>muse</italic> the longer kind.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Double Vowels, or Diphthongs.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>When of two vowels the compounded sound</l> 
                        <l>Completely in one syllable is found,</l>
                        <l>Of both partaking, yet distinct from all,</l>
                        <l>This we a proper double vowel call;</l>
                        <l>But if the sound of one be heard alone,</l>
                        <l>'Tis then improperly so called, we own,</l>
                        <l>Though of the proper it before were one.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Sev'n proper double vowels we allow,</l>
                        <l>(At th' end of words place <italic>ay</italic>, <italic>ey</italic>, <italic>oy</italic>, and <italic>ow</italic>)</l>
                        <l>These are <italic>ai</italic>, <italic>au</italic>, <italic>ee</italic>, <italic>ei</italic>, <italic>oi</italic>, <italic>oo</italic>, and <italic>ou</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Thus, <italic>fair</italic>, <italic>laud</italic>, <italic>feed</italic>, <italic>heir</italic>, <italic>voice</italic>, <italic>house</italic>, <italic>bay</italic>, and <italic>boy</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Prey</italic>, <italic>they</italic>, <italic>snow</italic>, <italic>know</italic>, <italic>below</italic>, <italic>embay</italic>, <italic>decoy</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Improper diphthongs ten we have in view;</l>
                        <l><italic>Aa</italic>, <italic>ea</italic>, <italic>eo</italic>, <italic>ei</italic>, <italic>ie</italic>, <italic>oa</italic>, <italic>oe</italic>, <italic>ue</italic>, <italic>ui</italic>, <italic>eu</italic>.</l>
                        <l>These ev'ry youth may easily discern,</l>
                        <l>Especially if he's inclin'd to learn.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Treble Vowels, or Triphthongs.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Three vowels too will sometimes be combined</l> 
                        <l>In one soft sound; but few of these we find:</l>
                        <l>Thus, <italic>eau</italic> in <italic>beauty</italic>; <italic>ieu</italic> in <italic>lieu</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Adieu</italic>; and <italic>iew</italic> in <italic>view</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="19"/>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Consonants.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>A consonant no proper sound obtains,</l>
                        <l>But from its <italic>sounding with</italic> the name it gains;</l>
                        <l>And yet it varies every vowel's sound,</l>
                        <l>Whether before, or after it, 'tis found.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>B</italic> one unvaried sound doth always claim; Beginning, middle, end, 'tis all the same;</l>
                        <l>Thus, <italic>baker</italic>, <italic>butler</italic>, <italic>rubber</italic>, and <italic>debase</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Rhubarb</italic> and <italic>curb</italic>, and all words in such case.</l>
                        <l>But yet it silent is in <italic>debtor</italic>, <italic>thumb</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Doubt</italic>, <italic>subtle</italic>, <italic>lamb</italic>, as also <italic>debt</italic> and <italic>dumb</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>C</italic> the hard sound of <italic>k</italic> will ever keep</l>
                        <l>Before <italic>a</italic>, <italic>o</italic>, <italic>u</italic>, <italic>l</italic>, and <italic>r</italic>; as <italic>creep</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Cloth</italic>, <italic>cup</italic>, <italic>cost</italic>, <italic>cat</italic>. Before <italic>e</italic>, <italic>i</italic>, and <italic>y</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Or an apostrophe, which doth <italic>e</italic> imply,</l>
                        <l>It mostly takes the softer sound of <italic>s</italic>,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>centre</italic>, <italic>civil</italic>, <italic>cymbal</italic>, do confess.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>When final <italic>c</italic> without an <italic>e</italic> is found,</l>
                        <l>'Tis hard; but silent <italic>e</italic> gives softer sound.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>C</italic> before <italic>h</italic> sounds <italic>tch</italic>, as <italic>church</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Chalk</italic>, <italic>cherry</italic>, <italic>chance</italic>, <italic>chip</italic>, <italic>chin</italic> and <italic>lurch</italic>.</l>
                        <l>But sometimes it doth sound like <italic>k</italic>; as <italic>chart</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Scheme</italic>, <italic>chorus</italic>, <italic>distich</italic>, which a little art</l>
                        <l>Will soon point out; and foreign names will show</l>
                        <l>The same, as <italic>Achish</italic>, <italic>Enoch</italic> place in view.</l>
                        <l><italic>Ch</italic> like <italic>sh</italic> sounds, as in the words <italic>machine</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>chaise</italic> and <italic>chevalier</italic>, likewise <italic>chagrin</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>D</italic> one unvarying sound doth always choose</l> 
                        <l>At first, in midst, and at the last to use.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>F</italic> the same certain rule doth follow,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>faithful</italic>, <italic>forfeit</italic>, <italic>fortune</italic>, <italic>fallow</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>G</italic> alters with the vowel oft its sound;</l>
                        <l>'Tis soft 'fore <italic>e</italic> or <italic>i</italic>, else hard is found.</l>
                        <l>When <italic>g</italic> doth close a word 'tis hard, as <italic>snug</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Bag</italic>, <italic>key</italic>, <italic>gig</italic>, <italic>frog</italic>, <italic>sing</italic>, <italic>ring</italic>, <italic>drug</italic>, <italic>dug</italic>, and <italic>pug</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>G</italic> before <italic>n</italic> resigns its sound, as <italic>feign</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Gnash</italic>, <italic>gnaw</italic>, <italic>impugn</italic>, <italic>gnat</italic>, <italic>sign</italic>, <italic>vignette</italic>, and <italic>deign</italic>.</l>
                        <pagebreak page_no="20"/>
                        <l>Gh the sound of f takes oft in th' end,<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">As, <italic>laugh</italic>, <italic>cough</italic>, <italic>tough</italic>, <italic>enough</italic>, and <italic>rough</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                        <l>But sometimes it is dropp'd the sound to mend.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">As in <italic>high</italic>, <italic>right</italic>, <italic>plough</italic>, <italic>mighty</italic>, <italic>bright</italic>, <italic>sight</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>H</italic>, though deny'd a letter oft before,</l>
                        <l>We justly to the alphabet restore.<footnote indicator="Double Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote"><italic>H</italic> is forcibly pronounced in <italic>habit</italic>, <italic>habitation</italic>, <italic>halo</italic>, <italic>ham</italic>, <italic>hand</italic>, <italic>hard</italic>, <italic>harvest</italic>, <italic>hatred</italic>, <italic>head</italic>, <italic>heart</italic>, <italic>heed</italic>, <italic>here</italic>, <italic>heaven</italic>, <italic>hell</italic>, <italic>highness</italic>, <italic>history</italic>, &amp;c.; but it is silent after <italic>r</italic>, as <italic>rhetoric</italic>, <italic>rhubarb</italic>, <italic>rheumatism</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>J</italic> always has the softer sound of <italic>g</italic>;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>jargon</italic>, <italic>jocund</italic>, <italic>jointure</italic>, <italic>jeopardy</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>K</italic> sounds hard <italic>c</italic> 'fore vowels <italic>i</italic> and <italic>e</italic>,</l>
                        <l>As in the words <italic>king</italic>, <italic>kingdom</italic>, <italic>kine</italic>, and <italic>key</italic>;</l>
                        <l>But before <italic>n</italic> it has no sound, we trow,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>knave</italic>, <italic>knife</italic>, <italic>knight</italic>, <italic>knock</italic>, <italic>knuckle</italic>, <italic>knowledge</italic>, <italic>know</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>L</italic> has a liquid sound, but that is soft,</l>
                        <l>As in <italic>love</italic>, <italic>ballad</italic>, <italic>billow</italic>, <italic>coal</italic>, and <italic>loft</italic>.</l>
                        <l>But <italic>l</italic> is sometimes mute, as <italic>calf</italic>, <italic>half</italic>, <italic>talk</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Likewise in <italic>psalm</italic>, <italic>could</italic>, <italic>would</italic>, <italic>calves</italic>, <italic>halves</italic>, and <italic>walk</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>M</italic> never varies in the least its sound,</l>
                        <l>As in <italic>man</italic>, <italic>manner</italic>, <italic>mummy</italic>, will be found.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>N</italic> keeps its sound in <italic>man</italic>, <italic>none</italic>, <italic>noble</italic>, <italic>tend</italic>,</l>
                        <l>But after <italic>m</italic> 'tis mute when at the end.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The same sound always we observe in <italic>P</italic>,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>print</italic> and <italic>paper</italic>, <italic>parchment</italic>, <italic>prop</italic>, and <italic>pea</italic>.</l>
                        <l>'Tis mute in <italic>psalter</italic>, <italic>psalm</italic>, and <italic>Ptolemy</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>tempt</italic>, <italic>prompt</italic>, <italic>vampt</italic>, when between <italic>m</italic> and <italic>t</italic>.</l>
                        <l><italic>Ph</italic> sounds <italic>f</italic>, as in <italic>geography</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Phoenix</italic>, <italic>phenomenon</italic>, <italic>philosophy</italic>.</l>
                        <l><italic>Ph</italic> sometimes, howe'er, is dropp'd withal,</l>
                        <l>In <italic>phthisis</italic>, <italic>phthisic</italic>, and in <italic>phthisical</italic>.</l>
                        <l><italic>Ph</italic> in <italic>Stephen</italic> too is spoke like <italic>v</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Likewise in <italic>nephew</italic>, as you here do see.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>Q</italic>, it doth seem, is always sounded <italic>kew</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And ne'er is penn'd without a following <italic>u</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>To <italic>R</italic> a sound that's rough doth most obtain,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>rage</italic>, <italic>rife</italic>, <italic>wretched</italic>, <italic>radish</italic>, <italic>rural</italic>, <italic>rain</italic>;</l>
                        <l>But yet it hath a softer one, as <italic>bird</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>bard</italic>, <italic>card</italic>, <italic>warmer</italic>, <italic>colder</italic>, <italic>darker</italic>, <italic>curd</italic></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="21"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The genuine sound of <italic>S</italic> must be acute</l>
                        <l>And hissing; but the close that does not suit;</l> 
                        <l>There 'tis obscure, and is pronounc’d like <italic>zed</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And also 'twixt two vowels, as <italic>pleased</italic>.</l>
                        <l>The sound of <italic>s</italic> is lost in the words <italic>isle</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Demesne</italic> and <italic>island</italic>, <italic>viscount</italic> and <italic>Carlisle</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>T</italic> before <italic>i</italic>, t' another vowel join'd,</l>
                        <l>Sounds like the sharp and hissing <italic>s</italic> we find;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>nation</italic>, <italic>station</italic>, also <italic>expiation</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Expatiate</italic>, <italic>propitiate</italic>, <italic>vexation</italic>.</l>
                        <l>But when an <italic>s</italic> or <italic>x</italic> doth <italic>ti</italic> precede,</l>
                        <l>For its own sound it earnestly doth plead;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>fustian</italic>, <italic>question</italic>, <italic>mixtion</italic>, <italic>bestial</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Commixtion</italic>, and the word <italic>celestial</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>V</italic> to the <italic>f</italic> by nature is allied,</l>
                        <l>And to its final has <italic>e</italic> always tied.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>To <italic>W</italic> two natures do belong;</l>
                        <l>'Tis consonant and vowel in our tongue:</l>
                        <l>The first begins all words, yet none can end,</l>
                        <l>The latter for the close doth most contend.</l>
                        <l>Its sound 'fore <italic>r</italic> is lost or very weak,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>wrap</italic> and <italic>wrangle</italic>, <italic>wrong</italic>, <italic>wry</italic>, <italic>write</italic>, and <italic>wreak</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>And the same right that <italic>w</italic> demands,</l>
                        <l><italic>Y</italic> doth require, according as it stands.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Three sev'ral sounds we now must give to <italic>X</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Like <italic>z</italic> in <italic>Xerxes</italic>; in <italic>exit</italic> like <italic>ks</italic>;</l>
                        <l>Like <italic>gz</italic> sometimes, as in <italic>exultation</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Exude</italic>, <italic>example</italic>, and <italic>exaggeration</italic>,<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">Generally, when a vowel follows <italic>ex</italic> it is sounded like <italic>gz</italic>; but if a consonant follow, it sounds like <italic>ks</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The <italic>Z</italic> a double consonant always is,</l>
                        <l>And strongly tinctur’d with the sound of <italic>s</italic>;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>zeal</italic> and <italic>zany</italic>, <italic>zealot</italic>, <italic>zealously</italic>,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>buzzard</italic>, <italic>quizzer</italic>, <italic>zone</italic>, <italic>zoology</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>These the chief sounds of all the letters are,</l>
                        <l>As the examples given do declare.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <pagebreak page_no="22"/>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of Syllables.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>A syllable's a short and perfect sound,</l>
                        <l>Where'er a single, or a double vowel's found;</l>
                        <l>Or either join'd with consonants, and spoke</l>
                        <l>In one entire breathing, as in <italic>smoke</italic>.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">A syllable is a complete and perfect sound, uttered in one breath, by a single impulse of the voice, which sometimes consists of one vowel, or double vowel; and sometimes of one vowel, or double vowel, joined to one or more consonants. Hence a single vowel may compose a syllable, as the first syllable in the following words: <italic>a-bandon</italic>, <italic>e-jectment</italic>, <italic>i-deal</italic>, <italic>o-pium</italic>, <italic>u-nion</italic>; but no number of consonants can be sounded without the aid of a vowel.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>As many vowels as emit a sound,</l>
                        <l>So many syllables in words are found.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">Except any of those vowels be silent, as the final <italic>e</italic>, and some others, which compose improper double vowels or dipththongs, together with the <italic>e</italic> which is added to some syllables in the middle of words, for the purpose of lengthening the sound of the foregoing vowel, as <italic>rarely</italic>, <italic>rudely</italic>; except also words ending in <italic>es</italic>, without <italic>s</italic> preceding <italic>e</italic> (whether in the singular or plural number); as, Sing. <italic>James</italic>, <italic>inclines</italic>, <italic>refines</italic>; Plur. <italic>names</italic>, <italic>trades</italic>, <italic>groves</italic>, &amp;c. But if <italic>s</italic> or the sound of <italic>s</italic> precede <italic>es</italic>, it makes another syllable; as, <italic>horse</italic>, <italic>horses</italic>; <italic>prince</italic>, <italic>princes</italic>; <italic>face</italic>, <italic>faces</italic>; <italic>prize</italic>, <italic>prizes</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>When any single consonant is seen,</l>
                        <l>Single or double vowels plac’d between,</l>
                        <l>The consonant divideth with the last,</l>
                        <l>But to the first the <italic>p</italic> and <italic>x</italic> join fast.<footnote indicator="Double Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter syllable; as, <italic>de-light</italic>, <italic>bri-dal</italic>, <italic>re-form</italic>. From this rule <italic>p</italic> and <italic>x</italic> are excepted; as, <italic>up-on</italic>, <italic>ex-act</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>In compound words its own will each retain,</l>
                        <l>Deriv'd compounds new endings must obtain.<footnote indicator="Section Sign"><paragraph type="footnote">
                            In all compounded and derivative words, the single or primitive words retain their own letters. A compound word is either composed of two distinct words; as, <italic>in-to</italic>, <italic>up-on</italic>, <italic>thank-ful</italic>, <italic>coach-man</italic>, <italic>sap-less</italic>, <italic>up-hold</italic>, <italic>where-by</italic>, <italic>with-in</italic>, <italic>with-out</italic>, <italic>with-draw</italic>, &amp;c.; or, it is made up of one word, which is called a primitive, and a syllable placed before it, which is called a particle of preposition, because it is set before the word: such are <italic>ad</italic>, <italic>en</italic>, <italic>in</italic>, <italic>un</italic>, <italic>de</italic>, <italic>dis</italic>, <italic>per</italic>, <italic>pre</italic>, <italic>re</italic>, <italic>sub</italic>, <italic>trans</italic>, &amp;c.; whence arise such words as these, <italic>ad-equate</italic>, <italic>en-trap</italic>, <italic>in-connexion</italic>, <italic>un-bred</italic>, <italic>de-part</italic>, <italic>dis-avow</italic>, <italic>per-chance</italic>, <italic>pre-science</italic>, <italic>re-admit</italic>, <italic>sub-urb</italic>, <italic>trans-form</italic>, &amp;c. A derivative compound word is that which comes from some other word, and is formed by an additional ending; such as, <italic>ed</italic>, <italic>en</italic>, <italic>ess</italic>, <italic>est</italic>, <italic>eth</italic>, <italic>edst</italic>, <italic>er</italic>, <italic>ing</italic>, <italic>ish</italic>, <italic>ist</italic>, <italic>ly</italic>, <italic>ous</italic>; thus, <italic>paint-ed</italic>, <italic>gold-en</italic>, <italic>count-ess</italic>, <italic>read-est</italic>, <italic>speak-eth</italic>, <italic>deliver-edst</italic>, <italic>hear-er</italic>, <italic>talk-ing</italic>, <italic>fool-ish</italic>, <italic>art-ist</italic>, <italic>covet-ous</italic>, <italic>kind-ly</italic>; in which, and all others of a similar kind, the primitive words retain their own letters.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="23"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The consonants preceding <italic>l</italic> and <italic>r</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Follow'd by <italic>e</italic>, never divided are.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">As, <italic>affa-ble</italic>, <italic>tri-fle</italic>, <italic>mi-tre</italic>. Examples to this rule seem to be included in the following.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Two consonants between two vowels plac'd,</l>
                        <l>Fit to begin a word, go to the last.</l>
                        <l>But those which can no word at all commence,</l>
                        <l>Ne'er can a syllable, without offence.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">When two consonants, proper to begin a word, come between two vowels, they belong to the latter syllable; as, <linebreak/>
                            <table cols="2" rows="29">
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Bl</cell>
                                    <cell>Able</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Cl</cell>
                                    <cell>Bar-na-cle</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Pl</cell>
                                    <cell>Ca-ta-plasm</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sl</cell>
                                    <cell>A-sleep</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Br</cell>
                                    <cell>A-broach</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Cr</cell>
                                    <cell>A-cre</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Dr</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-drench</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Fr</cell>
                                    <cell>A-fraid</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Gr</cell>
                                    <cell>A-gree</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Pr</cell>
                                    <cell>Ca-price</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Tr</cell>
                                    <cell>Me-trical</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Wr</cell>
                                    <cell>A-wry</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ch</cell>
                                    <cell>Ba-che-lor</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Dw</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-dwarf</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Gn</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-gnaw</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Fl</cell>
                                    <cell>A-float</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Gl</cell>
                                    <cell>De-glu-ti-ti-on</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Kn</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-know</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sc</cell>
                                    <cell>De-scribe</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sh</cell>
                                    <cell>A-shore</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sm</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-smear</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sn</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-snub</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sp</cell>
                                    <cell>A-spire</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sq</cell>
                                    <cell>A-squint</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>St</cell>
                                    <cell>A-stro-no-my</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Sw</cell>
                                    <cell>For-swear</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Th</cell>
                                    <cell>A-thwart</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Tw</cell>
                                    <cell>Be-tween</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Wh</cell>
                                    <cell>Mean-while</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph type="footnote">
                            To this rule, however, as well as to the former, this exception holds, that compound words keep each its part, and additional endings form distinct syllables. And where two consonants occur together that are not proper to begin a word, the former belongs to the first syllable, the latter to the last; as, <linebreak/> 
                            <table cols="2" rows="9">
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ld</cell>
                                    <cell>Seldom</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Lt</cell>
                                    <cell>Mul-ti-ply</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Mp</cell>
                                    <cell>Trum-pet</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Nd</cell>
                                    <cell>En-dorse</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Nj</cell>
                                    <cell>Un-just</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Rd</cell>
                                    <cell>Ar-dent</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Bb</cell>
                                    <cell>Dib-ber</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Cc</cell>
                                    <cell>Ac-cord</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Gg</cell>
                                    <cell>Swagger</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            And many others.
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph type="footnote">
                            But when three or more consonants meet in the middle of a word, the first consonant generally belongs to the first vowel, and the others to the latter; as, <linebreak/>
                            <table cols="2" rows="5">
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ntr</cell>
                                    <cell>Con-tract</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ppr</cell>
                                    <cell>Op-press</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Mpr</cell>
                                    <cell>Com-pre-hend</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Xpl</cell>
                                    <cell>Ex-plode</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Nstr</cell>
                                    <cell>In-struct</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            And others.
                        </paragraph>
                        </footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="24"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Two vowels meeting, each with its full sound,</l>
                        <l>Always to make two syllables are bound.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">
                            If two vowels occur in the middle of a word, each of them having its full and proper sound, they must be divided; as, <linebreak/>
                            <table cols="2" rows="6">
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Re-en-ter</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Co-a-li-tion</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Co-o-pe-ra-tion</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Pro-nun-ci-a-ti-on</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ac-tu-ate</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Ac-cen-tu-a-ti-on</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            This is the case wherever they do not form a diphthong.</paragraph>
                        </footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Etymology">
                <heading level="1">ETYMOLOGY.</heading>    
                <paragraph>
                    <l>Observe, that <small_caps>Etymology</small_caps> extends</l>
                    <l>To parts of speech, and rules for them commends;</l> 
                    <l>Likewise of words it shows how they're deriv’d,</l>
                    <l>By which the English tongue so much has thriv'd.</l> 
                    <l>It shows the variations of each part,</l>
                    <l>And is a principal grammatic art.</l>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <l>The parts of speech we find in number nine,</l>
                    <l>And each of them, we now shall here define.</l>
                </paragraph>                
                <paragraph>
                    <l>And, first, the <italic>Article</italic> will surely own</l>
                    <l>The foremost place; then <italic>noun</italic>, <italic>pronoun</italic>;</l>
                    <l>Then <italic>verb</italic>, and <italic>participle</italic> follow on;</l>
                    <l>With <italic>adverb</italic>, and the <italic>preposition</italic>;</l>
                    <l><italic>Conjunction</italic>'s next in place, without a doubt,</l>
                    <l>But <italic>interjection</italic> some would do without.</l>
                </paragraph>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of the Article.">
                    <heading level="2"><small_caps>Of the Article.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Before a noun the article must be</l>
                        <l>Plac'd to restrict it, as below yon see:</l>
                        <l>There are but two, viz. <italic>a</italic> or <italic>an</italic> and <italic>the</italic>.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">
                            <italic>A</italic> or <italic>an</italic> is called an indefinite article, because it is used in a vague sense, to point out one single thing of a kind; as, <small_caps>a</small_caps> <italic>man</italic>, that is, <italic>any man</italic>; <small_caps>a</small_caps> <italic>town</italic>, that is, <italic>any town</italic>: <small_caps>an</small_caps> <italic>apple</italic>, <small_caps>an</small_caps> <italic>orchard</italic>. Here observe, that <italic>a</italic> is used before a consonant, and <italic>an</italic> before a vowel, which rule must always be followed. <italic>The</italic> is called the definite article, because it distinguishes some particular person or thing; as, <italic>Give me</italic> <small_caps>the</small_caps> <italic>book</italic>, that is, <italic>the particular book</italic>. <italic>A</italic> or <italic>an</italic> can be joined to nouns in the singular number only; but <italic>the</italic> may be joined also to plurals.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">These little words placed before nouns are of great importance, as may be seen in the following examples: thus, <small_caps>the</small_caps> <italic>son of</italic> <small_caps>a</small_caps> <italic>bishop</italic>; <small_caps>the</small_caps> <italic>son of</italic> <small_caps>the</small_caps> <italic>bishop</italic>; <small_caps>a</small_caps> <italic>son of</italic> <small_caps>the</small_caps> <italic>bishop</italic>. Each of these sentences has a meaning peculiar to itself, through the different application of those little words called articles. Again:<linebreak/>
                                <l>"Extirpate the root that produces a thorn,</l>
                                <l>But nourish the tree on which fruitage is borne.</l>
                                <l>Extinguish the lamp of a tyrant with speed;</l>
                                <l>The one better die than the people should bleed."</l>                                    </paragraph>
                        </footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>    
                <pagebreak page_no="25"/>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Nouns.">
                    <heading level="2">OF NOUNS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Whate'er we see, feel, hear, smell, touch, or taste,</l>
                        <l>Or in the understanding's eye is placed,</l>
                        <l>Nouns properly we call; for always they</l>
                        <l>Some certain image to the mind convey;</l>
                        <l>As man, horse, house, virtue, and happiness,</l>
                        <l>And all such words as things themselves express.</l>
                        <l>Of nouns two sorts we certainly do find</l>
                        <l>(Expressive of the senses and the mind);</l>
                        <l>The first grammarians call noun substantive,</l>
                        <l>The second they declare noun adjective.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">Nouns or substantives are words used to express things themselves, that is, every thing that is the object of our several senses; of seeing, feeling, hearing, smelling, touching, tasting, reflection, and understanding; which, conveying some certain image or idea to the mind, want not the help of any other word to cause us to understand them. Thus, when we hear any one say, a man, a horse, a house, virtue, vice, happiness, &amp;c., we perfectly understand his meaning.</paragraph>
    <paragraph type="footnote">Nouns of the substantive kind being used to express the things themselves, it is impossible to put the word thing after them without making nonsense; for you cannot say, man thing, horse thing, virtue thing, happiness thing. But the word thing may be used with a noun adjective; as, a good thing, &amp;c.. Of adjectives we shall have occasion to speak hereafter.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    <folio folio_no="C"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="26"/>
                        <l>Of nouns two several sorts 'tis clear there are,</l>
                        <l>The common<footnote indicator="Asterisk">Common nouns or substantives stand for kinds containing many sorts or individuals under them; as, <italic>man, animal, horse, house, tree, town</italic>, &amp;c.</footnote> and the proper<footnote indicator="Dagger"> Substantives, or nouns proper, distinguish particulars or individuals; as the names of people, cities, towns, mountains, rivers, countries, &amp;c. Thus, <italic>George, London, Cambridge, Snowdon, Thames, England</italic>, &amp;c.</footnote> do declare.</l>                
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Number.">
                    <heading level="2">OF NUMBER.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Two different endings different numbers show,</l>
                        <l>And which no other part of speech does know.<footnote indicator="Double Dagger">Nouns, which signify either one or more of the same kind, must have different numbers to point out their difference: as, the <italic>singular</italic>, which confines the thing spoken of to <italic>one</italic>; and the <italic>plural</italic>, which signifies <italic>more than one</italic>.</footnote></l></paragraph>
                        <paragraph><l>To <italic>singular</italic> nouns we mostly add an <italic>s</italic></l>
                        <l>When we the <italic>plural number</italic> would express;</l>
                        <l>Or else <italic>es</italic>, for more harmonious sound,</l>
                        <l>Whene'er the singular to end is found</l>
                        <l>In <italic>x</italic>, <italic>ch</italic>, <italic>shy</italic> or <italic>ss</italic>,</l>
                            <l>As in the note most clearly we express.<footnote indicator="Section Sign">The <italic>singular</italic> number is made <italic>plural</italic> by adding <italic>s</italic>; as, <italic>tree, trees; hand, hands; prince, princes; page, pages; prize, prizes</italic>. But when the singular ends in <italic>x</italic>, <italic>ch</italic>, <italic>sh</italic>, or <italic>ss</italic>; by the addition of <italic>es</italic>; as, <italic>fox, foxes; church, churches; fish, fishes; witness, witnesses</italic>.</footnote></l></paragraph>
                        <paragraph><l>The following examples too are seen,</l>
                        <l>When for the <italic>s</italic> the plural ends in <italic>en</italic>,</l>
                            <l>As <italic>oxen</italic>, <italic>brethren</italic>, <italic>women</italic>, also <italic>men</italic>.</l></paragraph>
                        <paragraph><l>To these irregulars some more add yet;</l>
                        <l>As follow: <italic>mouse, mice</italic>; <italic>goose, geese</italic>; and <italic>foot, feet</italic>;</l> 
                        <l><italic>Tooth, teeth</italic>; <italic>die, dice</italic>; and likewise <italic>penny, pence</italic>;</l>
                            <l>And all such words as have a like pretence.</l></paragraph>
                        <paragraph><l>The nouns, whose singlars end in <italic>f</italic>, <italic>fe</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Their plurals have in <italic>ves</italic> we see:</l>
                        <l><italic>Calf, calves</italic>; <italic>sheaf, sheaves</italic>; <italic>half, halves</italic>; <italic>wife, wives</italic>;</l> 
                        <l><italic>Loaf, loaves</italic>; <italic>leaf, leaves</italic>; <italic>self, selves</italic>; <italic>life, lives</italic>.</l>
                        <pagebreak page_no="27"/>
                            <l>Except <italic>hoof, roof, dwarf, wharf, proof, stuff, relief</italic>,</l>
                            <l><italic>Ruff, cuff, skiff, muff, scurf, handkerchief</italic>, and <italic>grief</italic>.</l>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <l>Some nouns there are which terminate in <italic>y</italic>,</l>
                            <l>As may be seen in <italic>cherry, story, fly</italic>,</l>
                            <l>Which for the plural turn <italic>y</italic> into <italic>ies</italic>,</l>
                            <l>As you behold in <italic>cherries, stories, flies</italic>.</l>
                            <l>Except <italic>ay</italic>, <italic>ey</italic>, or <italic>oy</italic>, the sing'lar close;</l>
                            <l>As, <italic>day, days; key, keys; boy, boys</italic>: custom shows.</l>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <l>To others she, with arbitrary will,</l>
                            <l>Denies the claim of plural number still:</l>
                            <l>All <italic>proper names</italic> we in this rule contain;</l>
                            <l>The names of <italic>liquids</italic>, <italic>herbs</italic>, most sorts of <italic>grain</italic>,</l>
                            <l><italic>Spice, unctuous matter, wax, pitch, tar</italic>, and <italic>glue</italic>;</l>
                            <l>The names of <italic>virtues, vices, metals</italic> too.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">Under this rule we have to notice all proper names, or substantives proper, such as those of men, women, mountains, rivers, cities, towns, countries, &amp;c. (which we have adverted to before); as, <italic>Alexander the Great, Julius Cæsar, Queen Anne, George the Third, Vesuvius, Thames, Danube, London, Paris, Birmingham, England, France</italic>, &amp;c. All these deny the plural number, as is the case with the following:—</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Liquids</italic>; as, <italic>wine, ale, beer, oil, milk, vinegar</italic>, &amp;c.; but when these, and many that follow, signify several sorts; they are used in the plural; as, <italic>wines, ales</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Herbs</italic>; as, <italic>mint, sage, rosemary, southernwood, endive, parsley</italic>; except, <italic>cabbages, potatoes, leeks, nettles</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Grain</italic>; as, <italic>wheat, rye, barley, darnel, bran, meal</italic>; except <italic>oats, tares, beans, peas</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>   
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Spice</italic>; as, <italic>pepper, ginger, cinnamon, mace</italic>; except <italic>cloves, nutmegs</italic>.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Unctuous matter</italic>; as <italic>honey, butter, grease, wax, fat, pitch, tar, lard, bitumen, glue</italic>.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Metals</italic>; as, <italic>gold, silver, copper, lead, brass, tin, iron</italic>.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Virtues</italic>; as, <italic>prudence,justice, generosity, chastity</italic>.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote"><italic>Vices</italic>; as, <italic>sloth, avarice, envy, pride</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                                <paragraph type="footnote">To these may be added the names of abstract qualities; as, <italic>wisdom, probity, modesty, bashfulness, courage, constancy, contempt</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <l>Custom, to which all languages must bow,</l>
                            <l>Does to some nouns no singular allow.<footnote indicator="Dagger">As, <italic>annals, Alps, ashes, bowels, bellows, lungs, entrails, scissors, snuffers, shears, thanks, tongs</italic>, &amp;c.</footnote></l>
                        </paragraph>
                        <folio folio_no="C2"/>
                        <pagebreak page_no="28"/>
                </div2>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Cases.">
                    <heading level="2">OF CASES.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>In modern English, as in that of old,</l>
                        <l><italic>Two cases</italic> only do we find nouns hold;</l>
                        <l>The <italic>nominative</italic> is the noun alone,<footnote indicator="Asterisk">The nominative, or naming case, simply expresses the name of a thing or substance; as, <italic>a boy, a girl, a house, a city</italic>.</footnote></l>
                        <l>And the <italic>possessive</italic> indicates our own.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">The possessive case expresses the relation of property or possession; and has an apostrophe with the letter s added to the nominative, or name itself; as, <italic>man's strength, woman's beauty</italic>; that is, <italic>the strength of man, the beauty of woman</italic>. Many good writers have been of opinion, that this <italic>'s</italic> is nothing more than a contraction of the word <italic>his</italic>; but in this they are undoubtedly mistaken; for it is (as a comparison of the two languages will point out) an abbreviation of the old Saxon possessive case, which terminated in <italic>is</italic>. Thus the Saxons, to express <italic>the treachery of Judas</italic>, would have said <italic>Judas is treachery</italic>; but the <italic>i</italic> we now supply by the apostrophe.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">English nouns are therefore thus declined:
                            <table cols="3" rows="3">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">Nominative Case</cell>
                                    <cell>A man</cell>
                                    <cell>Men</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">Possessive Case</cell>
                                    <cell>Man's</cell>
                                    <cell>Men's</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            </paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">When the noun, whether singular or plural, terminates in <italic>s</italic>, the apostrophe only is generally inserted, and the <italic>s</italic> which marks the possessive case is omitted, especially in words which end in <italic>ss</italic>; as, singular, <italic>for righteousness' sake, for goodness' sake</italic>; plural, <italic>on eagles' wings, the stationers' company</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">We have said above that many suppose this <italic>'s</italic> to be a contraction of <italic>his</italic>, but this is erroneous; as, <italic>Mary's fan</italic> cannot mean <italic>Mary his fan</italic>: that would be nonsense.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The English language, to express the different connexions and relations of one thing to another, uses, for the most part, prepositions; <italic>as, of, to, for, from, with, in</italic>, or <italic>by</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <judgement type="praise" tedency="positive">ingenious</judgement> <reference referenced="Murray, Lindley" source="English Grammar Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners, 1795, p. 37" type="quotation" judgemental="0">Mr. Lindley Murray</reference>, speaking on this subject (Grammar, p. 37), says, <quotation author="Murray, Lindley" title="English Grammar Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners, 1795, p. 37" source_added="0">"For the assertion, that there are in English but two cases of nouns, and three of pronouns, we have the authority of <reference referencing="Murray, Lindley" referenced="Lowth, Robert" judgemental="0" type="legitimisation">Lowth</reference>, <reference referencing="Murray, Lindley" referenced="Johnson, Samuel" judgemental="0" type="legitimisation">Johnson</reference>, <reference referencing="Murray, Lindley" referenced="Priestley, Joseph" judgemental="0" type="legitimisation">Priestley</reference>, &amp;c., names which are sufficient to decide this point. If case in Grammar mean only the variation of a noun or pronoun, by termination or within itself (as it indisputably does), with what propriety can we distinguish the relations signified by the addition of articles and prepositions. by the name of cases? On this supposition, instead of five or six cases, we shall have a number equal to the various combinations of the article and different prepositions, with the noun, since no one of them can include or represent another."</quotation></paragraph></footnote></l>
                        <pagebreak page_no="29"/>
                        <l>These two are all of which we find account;</l>
                        <l>Though some have made them unto six amount.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Gender.">
                    <heading level="2">OF GENDER.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Three genders in the English tongue we find,</l>
                        <l>The male, the female, and the neuter kind.</l>
                        <l>The male’s call'd masculine, as all agree,</l>
                        <l>Which may be seen in man, betokening he<ed_note type="correction">h</ed_note>.</l>
                        <l>The feminine,; as woman, meaning she:</l>
                        <l>But things that have not life we neuter call,</l>
                        <l>As table, basket, garden, house, or hall.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">
                            <paragraph type="footnote">In the English language there are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The masculine denotes animals of the male kind, and the feminine those of the female; as,
                            <table cols="2" rows="15">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Masculine</cell>
                                    <cell>Feminine</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Man</cell>
                                    <cell>Woman</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Boy</cell>
                                    <cell>Girl<ed_note type="correction">rl</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Brother</cell>
                                    <cell>Sister</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Buck</cell>
                                    <cell>Doe</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Bull</cell>
                                    <cell>Cow</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Cock</cell>
                                    <cell>Hen</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Dog</cell>
                                    <cell>Bitch</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Drake</cell>
                                    <cell>Duck</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Father</cell>
                                    <cell>Mother</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Gander</cell>
                                    <cell>Goose</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Horse</cell>
                                    <cell>Mare</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Husband</cell>
                                    <cell>Wife</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Nephew</cell>
                                    <cell>Niece</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Wizzard</cell>
                                    <cell>Witch</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            </paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">But there are others which mark the gender by varying the termination of the masculine; as,
                                <table cols="2" rows="19">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell>Masculine</cell>
                                        <cell>Feminine</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Abbot</cell>
                                        <cell>Abbess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Abbott</cell>
                                        <cell>Abbess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Actor</cell>
                                        <cell>Actress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Ambassador</cell>
                                        <cell>Ambassadress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Count</cell>
                                        <cell>Countess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Deacon</cell>
                                        <cell>Deaconess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Duke</cell>
                                        <cell>Duchess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Elector</cell>
                                        <cell>Electress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Emperor</cell>
                                        <cell>Empress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Governor</cell>
                                        <cell>Governess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Marquis</cell>
                                        <cell>Marchioness</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <pagebreak page_no="30"/>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Master</cell>
                                        <cell>Mistress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Prince</cell>
                                        <cell>Princess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Patron</cell>
                                        <cell>Patroness</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Poet</cell>
                                        <cell>Poetess</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Tutor</cell>
                                        <cell>Tutress</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Administrator</cell>
                                        <cell>Administratrix</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Executor</cell>
                                        <cell>Executrix</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                            </paragraph>                        
                            <paragraph type="footnote">Sometimes the gender is pointed out by the addition of an adjective or a pronoun to the substantive; as, <italic>a male child, a female child; a he-goat, a she-goat</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">And sometimes by prefixing one noun to another, as, <italic>a manservant, a maidservant; a cock-sparrow, a hen-sparrow</italic>.
                            </paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>                
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Adjectives.">
                    <heading level="2">OF ADJECTIVES.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>We’ve seen that <italic>nouns</italic> the <italic>things</italic> themselves express</l> 
                        <l>But <italic>adjectives</italic> their <italic>qualities</italic> confess,</l>
                        <l>And on the nouns exclusive depend,</l>
                        <l>For without them no sense do they pretend:</l>
                        <l>As, <italic>red, black, white, swift, crooked, round</italic>, and <italic>square</italic>,</l> 
                        <l>Must, to be understood, to nouns adhere.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">We have before observed that nouns express the things themselves, but adjectives are used to show the manner or quality of those things; as, <italic>a</italic> good <italic>man</italic>, <italic>a</italic> bad <italic>man</italic>, <italic>a</italic> black <italic>horse</italic>, <italic>a</italic> white <italic>horse</italic>, <italic>a</italic> round <italic>table</italic>, <italic>a</italic> square <italic>table</italic>, &amp;c.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>Thing</italic>, that to follow nouns we find refuse,</l>
                        <l>Doth after adjectives good sense diffuse;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>black thing, white thing, good thing</italic>, may convince;</l>
                        <l><italic>This</italic> makes <italic>that</italic> understood, and be good sense.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>In adjectives no different numbers are,</l>
                        <l>As their unvaried endings do declare.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Whene’er two nouns compounded we perceive,</l>
                        <l>The first is always deem'd an adjective.<footnote indicator="Dagger">Various nouns assume the nature of adjectives; as, <italic>sea-fish, self-love, home-made, self-murder, wine-vessel, meadow-ground</italic>, &amp;c.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Most adjectives by two degrees do rise,</l>
                        <l>Or fall as much in number, bulk, or price,</l>
                        <l>By adding at the end <italic>r</italic>, <italic>er</italic>, or <italic>est</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Which by some little words is else expressed;</l>
                        <pagebreak page_no="31"/>
                        <l>As, <italic>wise, wiser, wisest</italic>; also <italic>most wise</italic>;</l>
                        <l>But <italic>very</italic> oft the place of <italic>most</italic> supplies.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">There are commonly reckoned three degrees of comparison; the positive, comparative, and superlative.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>positive</italic> state expresses the quality of an object, but without any increase or diminution; as, <italic>good, wise, great</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>comparative</italic> degree increases or lessens the signification of the positive state of the adjective; as, <italic>wiser</italic>, or <italic>more wise</italic>; <italic>Less wise</italic>, or <italic>not so wise</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>superlative</italic> increases or lessens the positive to the highest or lowest degree; as, <italic>wisest</italic>, or <italic>most wise</italic>; <italic>least wise</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Some few alone irregular are found,</l>
                        <l>And in comparison change name and sound.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">Some adjectives are very irregular in their form; as, 
                                <table cols="3" rows="7">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell>Positive</cell>
                                        <cell>Comparative</cell>
                                        <cell>Superlative</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Good</cell>
                                        <cell>better</cell>
                                        <cell>best</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Bad</cell>
                                        <cell>worse</cell>
                                        <cell>worst</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Little</cell>
                                        <cell>less</cell>
                                        <cell>least</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Much, Many</cell>
                                        <cell>more</cell>
                                        <cell>most</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Near</cell>
                                        <cell>nearer</cell>
                                        <cell>nearest, or next</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="data">
                                        <cell>Late</cell>
                                        <cell>later</cell>
                                        <cell>latest, or last</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                       </paragraph></footnote></l>
                        <l><italic>Superlatives</italic> do end sometimes in <italic>most</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Comparatives</italic> in <italic>er</italic>; as, <italic>nether, nethermost</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>                
                </div2>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Pronouns.">
                    <heading level="2">OF PRONOUNS.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Some words there are which take the place of nouns.</l> 
                        <l>And these the learn'd agree to call <italic>pronouns</italic>.<footnote indicator="Double Dagger">As it is often necessary to repeat what we have to say concerning any person or thing, the frequency of the same words occurring would be very disagreeable to the ear; to avoid which, there are, in all known languages, certain words established to supply their place, and remove this indecorum; and these words are generally styled <italic>pronouns</italic>, because they stand for nouns.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Three persons only every language claims,</l>
                        <l>And we express them by the following names</l>
                        <l><italic>I</italic>, <italic>thou</italic>, and <italic>he, she, it</italic>; <italic>we</italic>, <italic>ye</italic>, and <italic>they</italic>;</l>
                        <l>If you to these add <italic>who</italic> and <italic>what</italic>, you may.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>To pronouns, then, two numbers we allow,</l>
                        <l>A <italic>leading</italic> and a <italic>following state</italic> to know;</l>
                        <l>Beside th' <italic>objective</italic>, as you see below.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="32"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The <italic>leading state</italic> is <italic>I</italic>; the <italic>following, mine</italic>;</l>
                        <l>Th' <italic>objective</italic>, <italic>me</italic>, grammarians define.</l>
                        <l>These to the singular do all belong;</l>
                        <l>And now the plural must be shown as strong:</l>
                        <l>The <italic>following state</italic> is <italic>ours</italic>; the <italic>leading</italic>, <italic>we</italic>;</l>
                        <l>Th' <italic>objective state</italic> is <italic>us</italic>, as all agree.</l>
                        <l>First, second, and third persons, these do claim,<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">Personal pronouns are, <italic>I, thou, he, she, it</italic>; with their plurals, <italic>we, ye, they</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">These personal pronouns admit of person, number, gender, and case or state.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The persons are three, both in the singular and plural number; as
                                <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">First Person</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">I</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">We</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Second Person</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Thou</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Ye, or you</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Third Person</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">He, she, it</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">They</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                            </paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">
                                Personal pronouns have three states or cases, and are thus declined:
                                <heading_undefined>First Person</heading_undefined>
                                <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Nom.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">I</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">We</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Possessive</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Mine</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Ours</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Objective</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Me</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Us</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                                <heading_undefined>Second Person</heading_undefined>
                                <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Nom.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Thou</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Ye, or you</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Possessive</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Thine</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Yours</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Objective</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Thee</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">You</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                                <heading_undefined>Third Person</heading_undefined>
                                <table cols="5" rows="5">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                                        <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                        <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Masc.</cell>
                                        <cell>Fem.</cell>
                                        <cell>Neuter</cell>
                                        <cell>Masc. &amp; Fem.</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Nom.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">He</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">She</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">It</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">They</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Possessive</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">His</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Hers</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Its</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Theirs</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Objective</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Him</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Her</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">It</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Them</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                            </paragraph></footnote></l>
                        <l>But <italic>what</italic> and <italic>it</italic> refuse to change their name.</l>
                        <l>Beside the personal pronouns some there are,</l>
                        <l>Which in the notes below we shall declare.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote">Pronouns are divided into several other classes; as, possessive, relative, and demonstrative.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote"><small_caps>Possessive Pronouns</small_caps> are such as principally relate to possession or property. Of these there are seven; viz. <italic>my, thy, his, her, our, your, their</italic>. Instead of <italic>my</italic> and <italic>thy</italic>, it was formerly the custom to use <italic>mine</italic> and <italic>thine</italic> before a vowel or silent <italic>h</italic>; as, <italic>Blot out all</italic> mine <italic>iniquities</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote"><small_caps>Relative Pronouns</small_caps> are certain words which relate to some substantive going before; as, <italic>The</italic> man <italic>is happy</italic> who <italic>lives virtuously</italic>; and are therefore generally termed the antecedent. Relatives are <italic>who</italic>, <italic>which</italic>, <italic>what</italic>, and <italic>that</italic>. <italic>Who</italic> is of both numbers, and is thus declined:
                                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell>Sing. &amp; Plur.</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Nom.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Who</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Possessive</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Whose</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">Objective</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Whom</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
    <italic>What</italic> is a kind of compound, including both the antecedent and the relative, and is equivalent to <italic>that which</italic>; as, <italic>That is</italic> what <italic>I wanted</italic>; that is, <italic>the thing which</italic> I wanted. <italic>Who</italic> is applied to persons, <italic>which</italic> to animals or inanimates. <italic>That</italic>, as a relative, is often used to prevent the too frequent use of <italic>who</italic> and <italic>which</italic>. <italic>Who</italic>, <italic>which</italic>, and <italic>what</italic>, are called interrogatives when they are used in asking questions; as, <italic>Who is there? Which of them? What are you doing?</italic></paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote"><small_caps>Demonstratives</small_caps> are such as point out with precision the subjects to which they relate: <italic>this</italic> and <italic>that</italic>, <italic>these</italic> and <italic>those</italic>, are of this class; as, <italic>this</italic> is true charity, <italic>that</italic> is only its resemblance. <italic>This</italic> has reference to the nearest person or thing; <italic>that</italic>, to the more remote or distant.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>    
                <pagebreak page_no="33"/>
                <div2 description="main_text" name="Of Verbs.">
                    <heading level="2">OF VERBS.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">A verb is a part of speech which is, as it were, the soul of language, for no sentence can subsist without it, because nothing can be spoken that is either affirmed or denied without its assistance.</footnote></heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>A <small_caps>Verb</small_caps> (or <small_caps>Affirmation</small_caps>) we shall show</l>
                        <l>Affirmeth something, and does <italic>number</italic> know,</l> 
                        <l><italic>Mood</italic>, <italic>time</italic>, and <italic>person</italic>; whether it express</l>
                        <l><italic>Action</italic>, <italic>being</italic>, <italic>passion</italic>; or their want confess.<footnote indicator="Dagger">
                            <paragraph type="footnote">A verb (or affirmation), as the latter term imports, affirms some attribute, with the designation of <italic>mood</italic>, <italic>time</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, and <italic>person</italic>, and expresses <small_caps>being</small_caps>, <small_caps>doing</small_caps>, or <small_caps>suffering</small_caps>, or the want of them, or the like; that is, how or in what manner one person or thing is acted upon or affected by another; thus, <small_caps>being</small_caps> or <small_caps>existing</small_caps>; as, <italic>I am</italic>: <small_caps>doing</small_caps>, or <small_caps>action</small_caps>; as, <italic>I love</italic>: <small_caps>suffering</small_caps> or <small_caps>passion</small_caps>; as, <italic>I am loved</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">A verb has two <italic>numbers</italic>: the singular, <italic>I love</italic>; and the plural, <italic>we love</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>By <italic>moods</italic>, or <italic>modes</italic>, particular forms we learn,</l>
                        <l>Which every youth should carefully discern:</l>
                        <pagebreak page_no="34"/>
                        <l>They make the plan of every verb quite plain,</l>
                        <l>And students reap the most consummate gain.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Five <italic>moods</italic> the learn'd, in general, do hold;</l>
                        <l>(That boys should learn them they need not be told.)</l> 
                        <l>Th' <italic>indicative</italic>, <italic>potential</italic>, <italic>subjunctive</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Imperative</italic>, and the <italic>infinitive</italic>,</l>
                        <l>Comprise them all, as you will soon perceive.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">
                            <paragraph type="footnote">A <small_caps>mood</small_caps> or <small_caps>mode</small_caps> (from the Latin <italic>modus</italic>, a manner) is a particular form of the verb, pointing out the manners in which the <italic>being</italic>, <italic>action</italic>, or <italic>passion</italic> is represented.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">There are generally reckoned five moods; viz. the <italic>indicative</italic>, <italic>potential</italic>, <italic>subjunctive</italic>, <italic>imperative</italic>, and <italic>infinitive</italic>. These, words, or names of the moods, are derived from the Latin, <italic>indicativus</italic>, showing or affirming; <italic>potentialis</italic>, existing in possibility, having the power of; <italic>subjunctivus</italic>, subjoined; <italic>imperativus</italic>, commanding; and <italic>infinitivus</italic>, affirming. Hence,</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>indicative mood</italic> simply indicates, shows, affirms, or declares a thing; as, <italic>I love</italic>; or it asks a question, as, <italic>Do I love?</italic></paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>potential mood</italic> implies possibility, or liberty, power, will, or obligation; as, <italic>I may love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>subjunctive mood</italic> represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &amp;c.; and is preceded by a conjunction; as, <italic>if</italic> or <italic>though I love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>imperative mood</italic> is used for commanding, exhorting, intreating, or permitting; as, <italic>love thou</italic>, or <italic>do thou love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">The <italic>infinitive mood</italic> expresses or affirms a thing in a general or unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person; as, <italic>to love</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>Three times</italic> we in the English language know,</l>
                        <l>As <italic>present</italic>, <italic>past</italic>, and <italic>future</italic> clearly show.</l>
                        <l>The <italic>present</italic>, <italic>love</italic>; the <italic>past</italic>, <italic>have loved</italic> does make;</l>
                        <l>And the <italic>first future</italic>, <italic>shall</italic> or <italic>will</italic> does take.</l>
                        <l>To these <italic>three</italic> other <italic>times</italic> put in a claim,</l>
                        <l>These we shall first enumerate by name:</l>
                        <l>Th' <italic>imperfect past</italic> assumes <italic>did love</italic> or <italic>loved</italic>;</l>
                        <l>But <italic>more than past</italic> we find to be <italic>had loved</italic>.</l>
                        <l>The <italic>second future</italic> we shall find appear</l>
                        <l>In <italic>shall</italic> or <italic>will have loved</italic>: this is most clear.<footnote indicator="Dagger"><paragraph type="footnote"><small_caps>Time</small_caps> or <small_caps>tense</small_caps> (from the Latin word <italic>tempus</italic>, which signifies <italic>time</italic>) is the distinction of time, and might seem only to admit the <italic>present</italic>, which is the verb itself; as, <italic>I love</italic>; the past, as, <italic>I have loved</italic>; and the future, as, <italic>I shall</italic> or <italic>will love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">But the times or tenses are usually made five or six; which last number we shall adopt: these are,</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">1. The <italic>present time</italic>, which represents an action or event as doing or passing at the time in which it is mentioned, without any other limitation; as, <italic>I love</italic>, or <italic>I do love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">2. The <italic>imperfectly past time</italic> represents the action or event, either as past and completed, or as remaining unfinished at a certain time past; as, <italic>I loved</italic>, or <italic>was then loving</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">3. The <italic>past</italic>, or <italic>perfect</italic>, or <italic>perfectly past time</italic>, represents the action as completely finished, and not only refers to what is past or finished, but also conveys an allusion to the present time; as, <italic>I have loved</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">4. The <italic>more than past time</italic>, or <italic>pluperfect tense</italic>, represents the action, not only as past or finished, but also as finished before some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, <italic>I had loved</italic>. Some grammarians distinguish the three past times by the names of the <italic>first</italic>, <italic>second</italic>, and <italic>third preterites</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">5. The <italic>first future time</italic>, or <italic>future imperfectly past</italic>, represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when; as, <italic>I shall</italic> or <italic>will love</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">6. The <italic>second future time</italic>, or <italic>future perfectly past</italic>, represents the action as yet to come, intimating that it will be fully accomplished, at or before the time of another future action or event; as, <italic>I shall have loved</italic>.</paragraph>
                            <paragraph type="footnote">It may be necessary to observe that the two first of the above times or tenses, viz. the present and the imperfectly past, are called simple times, the former being the verb itself in its most simple or original form, and the latter being made by the addition of <italic>d</italic> or <italic>ed</italic> to the former; so that they are formed of the verb itself, without the assistance of any other verb. The four last, viz: the past or perfect, the more than past, and the first and second future times, are called compound times, because they cannot be formed without the assistance of some other verb as an auxiliary.</paragraph></footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="35"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        The <italic>personal pronouns</italic> persons do express;
                        As, <italic>I</italic>, <italic>thou</italic>, <italic>he</italic>; <italic>we</italic>, <italic>ye</italic>, and <italic>they</italic> confess.
                        With these their various endings too agree,
                        As we by <italic>love</italic>, <italic>lovest</italic>, and <italic>loves</italic> may see.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">There are three persons both in the singular and plural numbers of verbs, which are the personal pronouns placed before the verb; as,
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">First person</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I love <italic>or</italic> do love,</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We love <italic>or</italic> do love.</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">Second person</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou lovest <italic>or</italic> dost love,</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye love <italic>or</italic> do love.</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">Third person</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He loves <italic>or</italic> does love,</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They love <italic>or</italic> do love.</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph></footnote>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="36"/>                
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The <italic>participle</italic> from the verb’s derived,</l>
                        <l>But like an <italic>adjective</italic> appears contrived.</l>
                        <l>These <italic>being, doing, suffering, time</italic>, imply,</l>
                        <l>Like verbs, but show indeed a quality.</l>
                        <l>Some end in <italic>ing</italic>, and some in <italic>n, t, d</italic>;</l>
                        <l>As <italic>loving, roving, slain, taught, lov'd</italic>; we see:</l>
                        <l>Thus, <italic>loving woman</italic>, and <italic>a swelling main</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>A well taught boy, lov'd girl, a bullock slain</italic>.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><small_caps>Nine Auxiliaries</small_caps> are of general use,</l>
                        <l>And various meanings in the rest produce;</l>
                        <l><italic>Do</italic>, <italic>will</italic>, and <italic>shall</italic>, <italic>must</italic>, <italic>ought</italic>, and <italic>may</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Have</italic>, <italic>am</italic>, or <italic>be</italic>, this doctrine will display.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">The auxiliaries will be conjugated hereafter.</footnote></l>
                        <l>For these necessity, or power, or will,</l>
                        <l>And time, or duty, are expressing still.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>Do</italic> does the present time with force express,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>did</italic> imperfect past shows with no less.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>Will</italic> is the present, <italic>would</italic> imperfect past,</l>
                        <l>But when before some other verbs they're cast,</l>
                        <l>The future time by both is well express'd.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The same rule holds of <italic>shall</italic> and <italic>should</italic>, we know,</l>
                        <l>And each the future time as well doth show.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>In the first person simply <italic>shall</italic> foretels;</l>
                        <l>In <italic>will</italic> a threat or else a promise dwells.</l>
                        <l><italic>Shall</italic> in the second and the third does threat;</l>
                        <l><italic>Will</italic> simply then foretels the future feat.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>The <italic>future time</italic> does absolutely note</l>
                        <l>Both <italic>shall</italic> and <italic>will</italic>; but <italic>would</italic> and <italic>should</italic> do not,</l>
                        <l>But with condition, future time express;</l>
                        <l>Which difference they every where confess.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l><italic>May</italic> does the right or possibility,</l>
                        <l>And <italic>can</italic> the agent's power to do, imply.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Whenever <italic>have</italic> possession does denote,</l>
                        <l>These verbs it doth admit, else it does not.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Both <italic>am</italic> and <italic>be</italic> do in their native sense</l>
                        <l>Being import; but then they do dispense</l>
                        <l>The verb connected to the adjective,</l>
                        <l>That <italic>suff'ring</italic> we most readily perceive.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="37"/>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Where’er these helping verbs a verb precede,</l> 
                        <l>The endings of the following have no need</l>
                        <l>To change at all; but those must vary still,</l>
                        <l>The use of personal endings to fulfil.</l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>But when the <italic>present</italic> ends in <italic>d</italic> or <italic>t</italic>,</l>
                        <l><italic>Imperfect past</italic> the same we always see.<footnote indicator="Asterisk">As, <italic>present time</italic>, I spread; <italic>imperfectly past</italic>, I spread; <italic>present</italic>, I slit; <italic>imperfect</italic>, I slit.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Other exceptions to this rule we find,</l>
                        <l>Which to a future list will be consign'd.<footnote indicator="Dagger">These will be given in our observations on irregular verbs, after the examples of verbs conjugated regularly.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <l>Whene'er two verbs we find together braced,</l>
                        <l><italic>To</italic> hath between its station always placed.<footnote indicator="Double Dagger">As, <italic>I love to read</italic>. <italic>I dare fight</italic>, for <italic>I dare to fight</italic>.</footnote></l>
                    </paragraph>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="The Conjugation of Verbs">
                        <heading level="3">THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS.</heading>
                        <paragraph>Previously to our giving examples of the conjugation or inflexions of verbs, we must observe that there are three kinds of them, namely, <small_caps>Active</small_caps>, <small_caps>Passive</small_caps>, and <small_caps>Neuter</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>An Active verb denotes an action, and necessarily supposes an agent, and an object acted upon; as,<italic>I love; I love Caroline</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>A Passive verb denotes passion or suffering, or the receiving of an impression; and necessarily supposes an object upon which the impression is made, and an agent by whom it is made; as, <italic>I am loved; Caroline is loved by me</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>A Neuter verb denotes being, or a state or condition of being, when the agent and the object acted upon coincide, and the event is properly neither action nor passion, but rather something between both; as, <italic>I am, I sit, I stand</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="38"/>
                        <paragraph>An Active verb is sometimes called <italic>transitive</italic>, because the action <italic>passes over</italic>, as it were, to the object, or has an effect upon some other thing; as, <italic>I love Maria</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>In a Neuter verb the action does not <italic>pass over</italic> to the object, but is wholly confined to the agent; as, <italic>I walk, I run</italic>: it is therefore called <italic>intransitive</italic>.</paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="The Auxiliary or Helping Verb TO HAVE">
                        <heading level="3"><italic>The Auxiliary or Helping Verb</italic> TO HAVE.</heading>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Indicative Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present Time</small_caps> or <small_caps>Tense</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1st pers.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2nd pers.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hast</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3rd pers.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He, she, <italic>or</italic> it has <italic>or</italic> hath</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hadst <italic>or</italic> hast had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He <ed_note type="omission">has</ed_note> had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hast had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He has had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>                    
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I had had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We had had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hadst had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye had had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He had had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They had had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>      
                            <pagebreak page_no="39"/>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>First Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Second Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                    <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Potential Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c. have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell>He might, &amp;c., have</cell>
                                    <cell>They might, &amp;c., have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <pagebreak page_no="40"/>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He might, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They might, &amp;c., have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Subjunctive Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I had had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we had had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou had had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye had had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he had had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they had had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <pagebreak page_no="41"/>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>First Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Second Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Imperative Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data"><ed_note type="addition">Let me have</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let us have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Have thou, <italic>or</italic> do thou have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Have ye, <italic>or</italic> do ye have</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let him have</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let them have</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="2" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>To have</cell>
                                    <cell>To have had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Participles</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                    <cell>Compound Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Having</cell>
                                    <cell>Had</cell>
                                    <cell>Having had</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <pagebreak page_no="42"/>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="The Auxiliary or Helping Verb TO BE">
                        <heading level="3"><italic>The Auxiliary Verb</italic> TO BE.</heading>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Indicative Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I am</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We are</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou art</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye are</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He, she, <italic>or</italic> it is</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They are</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I was</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We were</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou wast</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye were</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He was</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They were</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hast been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He has been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>                    
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I had been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We had been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hadst been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye had been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He had been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They had been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>      
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>First Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Second Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                    <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="43"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Potential Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c. be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell>He might, &amp;c., be</cell>
                                    <cell>They might, &amp;c., be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, &amp;c., have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c., have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He might, &amp;c., have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They might, &amp;c., have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Imperative Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data"><ed_note type="addition">Let me be</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let us be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Be thou <italic>or</italic> do thou be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Be ye <italic>or</italic> do ye be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let him be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let them be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="44"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Subjunctive Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I were</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we were</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou were</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye were</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he were</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they were</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou hast been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I had been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we had been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou hadst been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye had been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he had been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they had been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>First Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Second Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="45"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="2" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>To be</cell>
                                    <cell>To have been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">Participles</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                    <cell>Compound Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Being</cell>
                                    <cell>Been</cell>
                                    <cell>Having been</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="INFLECTION OF THE OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS IN THEIR SIMPLE FORMS">
                        <heading level="3">INFLECTION OF THE OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS IN THEIR SIMPLE FORMS.</heading>
                        <paragraph>It will be easily perceived that the preceding auxiliary verbs, <italic>to have</italic> and <italic>to be</italic>, could not be inflected or conjugated through all the moods and tenses, without the assistance of other auxiliaries, or helping verbs.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>That auxiliary verbs, in their simple form, and unassisted by others, are of very limited extent, and principally useful from the aid which they afford in inflecting other verbs, will clearly appear to every discerning person by a distinct inflection of each of them, uncombined with any other, thus:</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">TO DO.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Tense.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I do</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We do</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou dost <italic>or</italic> doest</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye do</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He doth <italic>or</italic> does</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They do</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I did</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We did</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou didst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye did</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He did</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They did</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="46"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">WILL.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I will</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We will</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou wilt</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye will</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He will</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They will</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I would</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We would</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou wouldst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye would</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He would</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They would</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">SHALL.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I should</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We should</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shouldst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye should</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He should</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They should</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">MUST.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I must</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We must</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou must</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye must</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He must</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They must</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="47"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">OUGHT.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I ought</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We ought</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou oughtest</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye ought</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He ought</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They ought</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">MAY.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He might</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They might</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4">CAN.</heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I can</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We can</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou canst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye can</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He can</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They can</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I could</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We could</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou couldst</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye could</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He could</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They could</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>The foregoing verbs, <italic>have</italic>, <italic>be</italic>, <italic>will</italic>, and <italic>do</italic>, when unconnected with a principal verb, expressed or understood, <pagebreak page_no="48"/>are not auxiliaries, but principal verbs; and in this view they have also their auxiliaries; as, <italic>I</italic> shall have <italic>sufficient</italic>; <italic>I</italic> will be <italic>grateful</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>Do</italic> and <italic>did</italic> mark the action itself, or the time of it, with greater energy; as, <italic>I</italic> do <italic>speak the truth</italic>. <italic>I</italic> did <italic>respect him</italic>. They are also of use in interrogative and negative sentences; as, Did <italic>you write</italic>? <italic>You</italic> did <italic>not write</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>Will</italic>, in the first person singular and plural, intimates resolution and promising; in the second and third persons it only foretels.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>Shall</italic>, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretels; but in the second and third persons it promises, commands, or threatens; as, <italic>I shall go; We shall sup at nine; Thou shalt go; Ye shall do justly; They shall pay for the mischief they did; He shall smart for his misconduct</italic>. These observations relate to explicative sentences; but when the sentence is interrogative, the reverse, for the most part, takes place: thus, <italic>I</italic> shall <italic>go</italic>; <italic>Ye</italic> will <italic>go</italic>; express event only: but Will <italic>ye go</italic>? imports intention: and Shall <italic>I go</italic>? refers to the will of another. <italic>He</italic> shall <italic>go</italic>, and Shall <italic>he go</italic>? both imply <italic>will</italic>, expressing or referring to a command.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>Must</italic> is sometimes adopted as an auxiliary, and denotes necessity; as, <italic>We</italic> must <italic>speak the truth, and</italic> must <italic>not prevaricate</italic>. Neither <italic>must</italic> nor <italic>ought</italic> admits of any variation.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>Ought</italic> seems to imply a kind of duty; as, <italic>We</italic> ought <italic>to tell the truth, and</italic> ought <italic>not to prevaricate</italic>.</paragraph>
                        <paragraph><italic>May</italic> and <italic>might</italic> express the possibility or liberty of doing a thing; but <italic>can</italic> and <italic>could</italic> express the power or capacity of doing it.</paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <pagebreak page_no="49"/>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="The Conjugation of Regular Verbs">
                        <heading level="3">THE CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS.</heading>    
                        <paragraph>A Regular Active Verb is conjugated as follows:</paragraph>
                        <heading level="4">TO LOVE.</heading>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I love <italic>or</italic> do love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou lovest <italic>or</italic> dost love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He, she, <italic>or</italic> it loveth <italic>or</italic> does love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I loved <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou lovedst <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He, she, <italic>or</italic> it loved <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hast loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He hath <italic>or</italic> has loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>More than Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I had loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hadst loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He had loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>First Future, or Future Imperfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <folio folio_no="D"/>
                            <pagebreak page_no="50"/>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Second Future, or Future Perfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Potential Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, &amp;c., love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c., love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell>He might, &amp;c., love</cell>
                                    <cell>They might, &amp;c., love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We may, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mayst, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye may, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He may, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They may, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We might, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou mightst, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye might, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He might, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They might, &amp;c., have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <pagebreak page_no="51"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Subjunctive Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Present Time</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>More than Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I had loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou hadst loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he had loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they had loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>First Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Imperfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="6"><small_caps>Second Future</small_caps>, or <small_caps>Future Perfectly Past</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If I shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If we shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If he shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">If they shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <folio folio_no="D2"/>
                        <pagebreak page_no="52"/>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5">Imperative Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <cell>Plural</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data"><ed_note type="addition">Let me love</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let us love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Love thou <italic>or</italic> do thou love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Love ye <italic>or</italic> do ye love</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let him love</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Let them love</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                            <table cols="2" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>To love</cell>
                                    <cell>To have loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="5">Participial Forms</heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="2">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell>Present</cell>
                                    <cell>Past</cell>
                                    <cell>Compound Past</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row role="data">
                                    <cell>Loving</cell>
                                    <cell>Loved</cell>
                                    <cell>Having loved</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="Alternative Conjugation with Auxiliary and Active Participle">
                        <paragraph><small_caps>Observations.</small_caps> An active verb may, however, be otherwise conjugated or inflected, by adding its present or active particle to the auxiliary verb <italic>to be</italic>; through all its moods and tenses or times, according to the following plan, in which we shall lay before the student the singular and plural of each of the times of the indicative mood, as a pattern for the rest. Thus:</paragraph>
                        <paragraph>
                                <heading level="4"><small_caps>Indicative Mood.</small_caps></heading>
                                <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present.</small_caps></heading>
                                <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                    <row role="heading">
                                        <cell></cell>
                                        <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                        <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">I am loving</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">We are loving</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Thou art loving</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">Ye are loving</cell>
                                    </row>
                                    <row>
                                        <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">He <italic>or</italic> she is loving</cell>
                                        <cell role="data">They are loving</cell>
                                    </row>
                                </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Imperfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I was loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We were loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou wast loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye were loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He was loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They were loving</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <pagebreak page_no="53"/>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Perfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I have been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hast been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He has been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>More than Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I had been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We had been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou hadst been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye had been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He had been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They had been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>First Future, or Future Imperfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will be loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will be loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt be loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will be loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will be loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will be loving</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Second Future, or Future Perfectly Past.</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Singular</ed_note></cell>
                                    <cell><ed_note type="addition">Plural</ed_note></cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">1.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">I shall <italic>or</italic> will have been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">We shall <italic>or</italic> will have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">2.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">Ye shall <italic>or</italic> will have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                                <row>
                                    <cell role="heading">3.</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">He shall <italic>or</italic> will have been loving</cell>
                                    <cell role="data">They shall <italic>or</italic> will have been loving</cell>
                                </row>
                            </table>
                        </paragraph>
                        <paragraph>And after the same manner throughout the other moods and tenses or times. This method of conjugation has, on particular occasions, a peculiar propriety, and greatly contributes to the harmony and precision of the language.</paragraph>
                    </div3>
                    <pagebreak page_no="54"/>
                    <div3 description="main_text" name="Inflection of the Regular Passive Verb">
                        <heading level="3">The <small_caps>Regular Passive Verb</small_caps> is thus inflected: TO BE LOVED.</heading>
                        <paragraph>
                            <heading level="4"><small_caps>Indicative Mood</small_caps></heading>
                            <heading level="5"><small_caps>Present</small_caps></heading>
                            <table cols="3" rows="4">
                                <row role="heading">
                                    <cell></cell>
                                    <cell>Singular</cell>
                                    <ce