This version (2015/11/01 17:23) was approved by gatherk.The Previously approved version (2015/10/28 15:52) is available.Diff

Williams: Catechism of English Grammar (1818)

Last Change: 17.10.2015

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-model href="Schema.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"?>
<grammar_book>
    <grammar_header>
        <gr_id>12</gr_id>
        <gr_author_id>9</gr_author_id>
        <gr_last_edit by="Gather, Kirsten">17.10.2015</gr_last_edit>
        <gr_author>Williams, David</gr_author>
        <gr_author_gender>Male</gr_author_gender>
        <gr_education></gr_education>
        <gr_occupation></gr_occupation>
        <gr_title>The Catechism of English Grammar; Containing the Principles of the Language, and Rules and Directions for Speaking and Writing it with Propriety and Accuracy. With a Variety of Exercises, Designed as Practical Illustrations of the Various Rules. To which is subjoined, A Copious List of Solecisms, or Vulgar and Erroneous Modes of Expression.</gr_title>
        <gr_short_title>Catechism of English Grammar</gr_short_title>
        <gr_publisher>Simpkin and Marshall, Stationers-court, Ludgate-hill; Birkett and Scott, 27, Norton Folgate; Bowdery and Kerby, 190, Oxford-street; Tabart, Bond-street; Wright and Cruickshank, Liverpool; Thomson, Manchester; and Wrightson, Birmingham</gr_publisher>
        <gr_place_of_publication>London</gr_place_of_publication>
        <gr_year_publication>1818</gr_year_publication>
        <gr_year_edition>1818</gr_year_edition>
        <gr_no_edition>1</gr_no_edition>
        <gr_no_of_pages>88</gr_no_of_pages>
        <gr_no_of_words></gr_no_of_words>
        <gr_language>English</gr_language>
        <gr_variety>British English</gr_variety>
        <gr_type>Teaching Grammar</gr_type>
        <gr_form>Catechism</gr_form>
        <gr_target_institution>School</gr_target_institution>
        <gr_target_audience>Beginner</gr_target_audience>
        <gr_target_audience_author></gr_target_audience_author>
    </grammar_header>
    <grammar_text>
        <div0 description="front_matter">
            <div1 description="title_page">
                THE CATECHISM OF English Grammar; Containing the principles of the language, AND RULES AND DIRECTIONS For speaking and writing it with propriety and accuracy.<linebreak/>
WITH A VARIETY OF EXERCISES, Designed as Practical Illustration, of the various Rules.<linebreak/>TO WHICH IS SUBJOINED, A Copious List of Solecisms, or Vulgar and Erroneous Modes of Expression.<linebreak/>By the Rev. DAVID WILLIAMS, M. A.<linebreak/>LONDON: Published by Simpkin and Marshall, Stationers-court,  Ludgate-hill; Birkett and Scott, 27, Norton Folgate; Bowdery and Kerby, 190, Oxford-street; Tabart, Bond-street; Wright and Cruickshank, Liverpool; Thomson, Manchester; and Wrightson, Birmingham. Price 18d. Bound. 1818.
            </div1>
            <div1 description="preface" name="Preface">
                <heading level="1">PREFACE.</heading>
                <paragraph><small_caps>The</small_caps> following little Manual of English Grammar was compiled for the use of its author's pupils. He is willing to believe, that it is calculated to convey a correct and competent knowledge of the subject of which it professes to treat; and he apprehends, that the discerning Teacher will perceive that the subject is treated in a more inviting, as well as a more systematic, manner, than is the case with the generality of compilations of a like nature. Neither has he any doubt, notwithstanding its confined limits, but that it will be found as full and comprehensive as many similar books of much larger dimensions. Of the improvements and additions he has made, he forbears to make mention: to those acquainted with the various publications on English Grammar, they require no index.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>"The great art of education," says a pious and excellent Divine, "is to lighten the burden of the work, and render it agreeable and pleasant; and nothing is better adapted to fix in the minds of children what they read, than interrogating them concerning it." The truth of this observation is known to all those who have had experience in the business of education. Questions rouse the attention, and lead to reflection. They stimulate the learner to examine the sense and meaning of what he reads, and tend to fix the memory better than can be accomplished by mere rehearsal or repetition. Satisfied of the utility, as well as efficiency, of this mode of instruction, the Compiler of the ensuing little work has thrown it into the form of question and answer.</paragraph>
            </div1>
        </div0>
        <pagebreak page_no=""/>
        <div0 description="main_body" name="The Catechism of English Grammar">
            <heading_undefined><small_caps>The Catechism of</small_caps> English Grammar.</heading_undefined>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Introductory Questions">
                <ed_note type="addition"><heading level="1">Introductory Questions.</heading></ed_note>
                    <paragraph>WHAT is meant by Grammar? <linebreak/>
                        The construction of language according to certain established rules.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Of how many parts does Grammar consist? <linebreak/>Of six.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/><italic>Orthoëpy</italic>, <italic>Orthography</italic>, <italic>Derivation</italic> or <italic>Etymology</italic>, <italic>Accidence</italic>, <italic>Syntax</italic>, and <italic>Prosody</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by Orthoëpy? <linebreak/>The proper pronunciation of letters, syllables, and words.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What does Orthography teach? <linebreak/>The correct method of spelling and dividing Words.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What are the constituent parts of words? <linebreak/>Letters and syllables.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is a letter? <linebreak/>An arbitrary character, forming the least constituent part of a word or syllable.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>How many letters are there in the English language?<linebreak/> Twenty six.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/><folio folio_no="A"/><pagebreak page_no="2"/>A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, U, W, X, Y, Z.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>How are these letters divided? <linebreak/>Into vowels and consonants.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is the number of vowels? <linebreak/>Five.</paragraph>                           <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/><italic>a</italic>, <italic>e</italic>, <italic>i</italic>, <italic>o</italic>, <italic>u</italic>. Sometimes <italic>w</italic> and <italic>y</italic> are vowels.</paragraph>                
                    <paragraph>When are <italic>w</italic> and <italic>y</italic> used as vowels? <linebreak/>When they occur between two vowels; as <italic>ewe</italic>, <italic>eye</italic>. In all other cases they are consonants.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is a vowel? <linebreak/>A letter which forms a perfect articulate sound of itself.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by a consonant? <linebreak/>A letter which cannot form a distinct articulate sound of itself, without the aid of a vowel.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>How many consonants are there in the English language? <linebreak/>Twenty one.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/>B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, and Z.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>How are consonants distinguished? <linebreak/>Into mutes and semivowels.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by a mute? <linebreak/>A letter which has no sound, without the aid of a vowel.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Mention the consonants which are termed mutes. <linebreak/><italic>b</italic>, <italic>d</italic>, <italic>k</italic>, <italic>p</italic>, <italic>t</italic>, and <italic>c</italic> and <italic>g</italic> hard.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by a semivowel? <linebreak/>A letter which cannot be perfectly sounded by itself.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Which are the semivowels? <linebreak/><italic>f</italic>, <italic>l</italic>, <italic>m</italic>, <italic>n</italic>, <italic>r</italic>, <italic>s</italic>, <italic>v</italic>, <italic>x</italic>, <italic>z</italic>, and <italic>c</italic> and <italic>g</italic> soft.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Are there no other distinctions of the consonants in use? <linebreak/>Yes: those of <italic>labial</italic>, <italic>dental</italic>, <italic>palatal</italic>, and <italic>nasal</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Which are the labial consonants? <linebreak/>Those which are sounded by the lips; as <italic>b</italic>, <italic>p</italic>, <italic>f</italic>, and <italic>v</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Which the dental? <linebreak/>Those which are sounded by the teeth; as <italic>d</italic> and <italic>t</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Which are the palatal? <linebreak/>Those which are sounded by the tongue against the palate or roof of the month; as <italic>g</italic>, <italic>k</italic>, <italic>l</italic>, <italic>r</italic>, <italic>s</italic> and <italic>z</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Which the nasal? <linebreak/>Those which are sounded through the nose; as <italic>m</italic> and <italic>n</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by a syllable? <linebreak/>A sound which is pronounced by a single impulse of the voice.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Of what are syllables composed? <linebreak/>Of the intermixture of vowels and consonants, or entirely of vowels; in which latter case the union of the vowels is called a diphthong, or a triphthong, according to their occurrence.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is a diphthong? <linebreak/>The meeting of two vowels in a word or <folio folio_no="A2"/>  <pagebreak page_no="4"/> syllable; as <italic>ea</italic> in head, <italic>ou</italic> in soul.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is a triphthong? <linebreak/>The meeting of three vowels in a word or syllable; as <italic>eau</italic> in beau, <italic>ieu</italic> in lieu.</paragraph>                      <paragraph>What are the distinctions of words? <linebreak/>Those of <italic>monosyllables</italic>, <italic>dissyllables</italic>, <italic>trisyllables</italic>, and <italic>polysyllables</italic>. Words are also <italic>primitive</italic>, <italic>derivative</italic>, or <italic>compound</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What is meant by a monosyllable? <linebreak/>A word of one syllable; as <italic>man</italic>, <italic>boy</italic>, <italic>girl</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a dissyllable? <linebreak/>A word of two syllables; as <italic>woman</italic>, <italic>husband</italic>, <italic>brother</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a trisyllable?<linebreak/>A word of three syllables; as <italic>schoolmaster</italic>, <italic>general</italic>, <italic>publican</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a polysyllable? <linebreak/>A word of many syllables; as <italic>Mahometan</italic>, <italic>transfiguration</italic>, <italic>incomprehensibility</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a primitive word? <linebreak/>The original terms or denominations of ideas or objects; as <italic>man</italic>, <italic>boy</italic>, <italic>virtue</italic>, <italic>vice</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a derivative word? <linebreak/>A word derived from another; as <italic>manhood</italic>, <italic>delightful</italic>, <italic>peaceable</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>What by a compound word? <linebreak/>A word composed of two or more words; as <italic>shipwright</italic>, <italic>schoolmaster</italic>, <italic>teacup</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Mention the principal rules for the just spelling of words in the English language. <linebreak/>1st. That monosyllables ending with the consonants <italic>f</italic>, <italic>l</italic>, or <italic>s</italic>, following a <italic>single</italic> vowel, <pagebreak page_no="5"/> always double the consonant; as <italic>staff</italic>, <italic>muff</italic>, <italic>ball</italic>, <italic>mill</italic>, <italic>lass</italic>, <italic>pass</italic>. &amp;c. except <italic>as</italic>, <italic>is</italic>, <italic>if</italic>, <italic>of</italic>, <italic>his</italic>, <italic>has</italic>, <italic>was</italic>, <italic>this</italic>, <italic>thus</italic>, <italic>us</italic>, and <italic>yes</italic>. But when more than one vowel precedes the final consonant, that consonant is not doubled; as <italic>foot</italic>, <italic>roof</italic>, <italic>root</italic>, &amp;c. <linebreak/>2dly. Monosyllables ending with any consonant: except <italic>f</italic>, <italic>l</italic>, or <italic>s</italic>, immediately following a single vowel, end with a single vowel; as <italic>map</italic>, <italic>bag</italic>, <italic>gig</italic>, <italic>gun</italic>, <italic>pit</italic>, <italic>fox</italic>, &amp;c. except <italic>add</italic>, <italic>butt</italic>, <italic>bunn</italic>, <italic>ebb</italic>, <italic>egg</italic>, <italic>err</italic>, <italic>inn</italic>, <italic>odd</italic>, <italic>purr</italic>, and <italic>buzz</italic>. <linebreak/>3dly. Derivatives from words ending in <italic>y</italic>, preceded by a consonant, change <italic>y</italic> into <italic>i</italic>; as <italic>happy</italic>, <italic>happier</italic>; <italic>mercy</italic>, <italic>merciless</italic>; <italic>lady</italic>, <italic>ladies</italic>; <italic>bury</italic>, <italic>burial</italic>; <italic>fancy</italic>, <italic>fancies</italic>; &amp;c. But derivatives ending in the participle <italic>ing</italic>, do not change the <italic>y</italic>; as <italic>carry</italic>, <italic>carrying</italic>; <italic>supply</italic>, <italic>supplying</italic>; &amp;c. Neither is the <italic>y</italic> changed in words ending with that letter, if it be preceded by a vowel, as <italic>play</italic>, <italic>plays</italic>; <italic>toy</italic>, <italic>toys</italic>; <italic>stay</italic>, <italic>stays</italic>; <italic>joy</italic>, <italic>joyful</italic>; &amp;c.; except in <italic>lay</italic>, <italic>pay</italic>, and <italic>say</italic>, from which are formed <italic>laid</italic>, <italic>paid</italic>, and <italic>said</italic>. <linebreak/>4thly. Monosyllables and words, having the accent on the last syllable, and ending with a single consonant immediately following a single vowel, double the consonant when they become derivatives; as <italic>bet</italic>, <italic>betted</italic>; <italic>drag</italic>, <italic>dragged</italic>; <italic>drop</italic>, <italic>dropped</italic>; <italic>commit</italic>, <italic>committed</italic>; <italic>begin</italic>, <italic>beginner</italic>; <italic>concur</italic>, <italic>concurred</italic>; <italic>intermit</italic>, <italic>intermitted</italic>; &amp;c. <linebreak/> <folio folio_no="A3"/> <pagebreak page_no="6"/>5thly. Words ending with any double letter, except <italic>ll</italic>, and taking <italic>ness</italic>, <italic>less</italic>, <italic>ly</italic>, or <italic>ful</italic> after them, retain the double letter; as <italic>heartlessness</italic>, <italic>successful</italic>, <italic>carelessly</italic>, &amp;c. But words ending with <italic>ll</italic>, lose one of the <italic>l</italic>'s should the syllable <italic>ness</italic>, <italic>less</italic>, <italic>ly</italic>, or <italic>ful</italic> be added to them; as <italic>fulness</italic>, <italic>skilful</italic>, &amp;c. <linebreak/>6thly. When <italic>ness</italic>, <italic>less</italic>, <italic>ly</italic>, and <italic>ful</italic> are added to words ending with a silent <italic>e</italic>, the silent <italic>e</italic> is retained; as <italic>sedateness</italic>, <italic>securely</italic>, <italic>peaceful</italic>, &amp;c. But the words <italic>duly</italic>, <italic>truly</italic>, <italic>awful</italic> are exceptions to the rule. <linebreak/>7thly. In the addition of <italic>ment</italic> to words ending with a silent <italic>e</italic>, the <italic>e</italic> is retained in the orthography; as <italic>arrangement</italic>, <italic>chastisement</italic>, &amp;c. But <italic>judgment</italic>, <italic>abridgment</italic>, <italic>acknowledgment</italic>, are by most writers considered as deviations from the rule. When <italic>ment</italic> is added to words ending with <italic>y</italic> preceded by a consonant, the <italic>y</italic> is changed into an <italic>i</italic>; as <italic>accompaniment</italic>, <italic>merriment</italic>, &amp;c. <linebreak/>8thly. When <italic>able</italic> and <italic>ible</italic>, and <italic>ing</italic> and <italic>ish</italic> are appended to words ending with a silent <italic>e</italic>, the <italic>e</italic> is almost generally dropped; as <italic>blamable</italic>, <italic>sensible</italic>, <italic>lodging</italic>, <italic>obliging</italic>, &amp;c. But when <italic>c</italic> or <italic>g</italic> precede the silent <italic>e</italic> in the primitive word, the <italic>e</italic> is then retained in words compounded with <italic>able</italic>; as <italic>changeable</italic>, <italic>peaceable</italic>, chargeable <ed_note type="correction">chargeble</ed_note>, &amp;c.  <linebreak/>9thly. Words compounded of two primitive <pagebreak page_no="7"/> words, if such primitive words end with a double consonant, generally drop the mute consonant; as <italic>fulfil</italic>, <italic>chilblain</italic>, <italic>handful</italic>, <italic>foretel</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Etymology or Derivation.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Etymology and Derivation.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is the meaning of Etymology? <linebreak/>The derivation of words, and their forms and changes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the derivation of the generality of words in the English language? <linebreak/>From the Latin.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the words in the English language which are derived from the Latin. <linebreak/>Those ending in <italic>ation</italic>, <italic>etion</italic>, <italic>ition</italic>, <italic>otion</italic>, <italic>ution</italic>; in <italic>ty</italic>, <italic>ure</italic>, <italic>ude</italic>, <italic>and</italic>, <italic>or</italic>, or <italic>our</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Those which are derived from the Greek? <linebreak/>
                    Nouns ending in <italic>y</italic>, which have <italic>ch</italic> in them, and which begin with and, <italic>cy</italic>, <italic>hy</italic>, <italic>phi</italic>, <italic>py</italic>, <italic>sy</italic>, <italic>ty</italic>, or <italic>z</italic>.         </paragraph>
                <paragraph>What English words have been chiefly derived from the Saxon? <linebreak/>Monosyllables.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What from the French? <linebreak/>Many words beginning with <italic>ch</italic>; as <italic>chagrin</italic>, <italic>chaise</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Accidence.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Accidence.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is meant by the expression "<italic>Accidence</italic>." <linebreak/>The modification of words; namely the declension of nouns and pronouns, and the formation or conjugation of verbs.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many kinds of words are there in the English language? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="8"/> Nine.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are they called? <linebreak/>Parts of Speech.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Name them. <linebreak/><italic>Article</italic>, <italic>noun</italic> or <italic>substantive</italic>, <italic>adnoun</italic> or <italic>adjective</italic>, <italic>pronoun</italic>, <italic>verb</italic>, <italic>adverb</italic>, <italic>preposition</italic>, <italic>conjunction</italic>, and <italic>interjection</italic>.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of the Article.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of the Article.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is the article? <linebreak/>A word prefixed to nouns to define the precise meaning in which the noun is used; as <italic>a</italic> man, <italic>an</italic> eye, <italic>the</italic> woman.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many kinds of articles are there in the English language? <linebreak/>Two, <italic>a</italic> or <italic>an</italic>, and <italic>the</italic>; the former of which is styled the indefinite article, the latter the definite article.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Why is the article <italic>a</italic> changed into <italic>an</italic> before words beginning with a vowel or a silent <italic>h</italic>? <linebreak/>For sound’s sake.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the words beginning with an <italic>h</italic> in which the <italic>h</italic> is not aspirated. <linebreak/><italic>Heir</italic>, <italic>heiress</italic>, <italic>honour</italic>, <italic>honourable</italic>, <italic>herb</italic>, <italic>hospital</italic>, <italic>hostler</italic>, <italic>hour</italic>, <italic>humble</italic>, <italic>honest</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the article <italic>a</italic> used before a word beginning with a vowel? <linebreak/>In words beginning with an <italic>u</italic> long; as <italic>a university</italic>; so also in the words <italic>useful</italic>, <italic>universal</italic>. 2dly. When <italic>o</italic> takes the sound of <italic>w</italic>, as such <italic>a-one</italic>; and 3dly. When <italic>e</italic> is sounded like <italic>y</italic>, as <italic>a Eurepean</italic>, <italic>a ewe</italic>.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="9"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Nouns or Substantives.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Nouns or Substantives.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is a noun or substantive? <linebreak/>A word which expresses the names of persons, places, or things; as <italic>George</italic>, <italic>man</italic>, <italic>London</italic>, <italic>England</italic>, <italic>book</italic>, <italic>pen</italic>, &amp;c. </paragraph>   
                <paragraph>How many kinds of nouns or substantives are there? <linebreak/>Two; <italic>proper</italic> and <italic>common</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by a substantive proper? <linebreak/>The name of any particular person, place, or thing; as <italic>George</italic>, <italic>London</italic>, <italic>Thames</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What by a substantive common? <linebreak/>The name of any thing, being, or object which we see, or discourse of; as <italic>book</italic>, <italic>man</italic>, <italic>church</italic>, <italic>house</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What are the properties of nouns or substantives? <linebreak/><italic>Gender</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, and <italic>case</italic>.</paragraph>
            </div1>            
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Gender.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Gender.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>How many genders have substantives? Three; the <italic>masculine</italic>, the <italic>feminine</italic>, and the <italic>neuter</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the masculine gender used to express? <linebreak/>Persons or animals of the male kind; as <italic>a man</italic>, <italic>a horse</italic>, <italic>a lion</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What the feminine gender? <linebreak/>Persons or animals of the female kind; as <italic>a woman</italic>, <italic>a mare</italic>, <italic>a bitch</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What the neuter gender? <linebreak/>Inanimate things; as <italic>a house</italic>, <italic>a table</italic>, <italic>a book</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="10"/>
                <paragraph>Are there no exceptions in which inanimate things are used as if of the masculine and feminine gender? <linebreak/>Yes: the <italic>sun</italic> and <italic>time</italic> are in general used as of the masculine gender; but the <italic>moon</italic>, the <italic>earth</italic>, a <italic>ship</italic>, as also <italic>virtue</italic>, <italic>fortune</italic>, and the <italic>church</italic>, are used as of the feminine gender.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>By how many methods is gender distinguished in the English language? <linebreak/>By three: 1st, by the variation of words; 2dly, by the difference of termination; and 3dly, by compounding words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention those nouns of which the gender is expressed by a variation of words. <linebreak/><table cols="2" rows="35">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Male</cell>
                            <cell>Female</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bachelor</cell>
                            <cell>Maid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Boar</cell>
                            <cell>Sow</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Boy</cell>
                            <cell>Girl</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bridegroom</cell>
                            <cell>Bride</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Brother</cell>
                            <cell>Sister</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Buck</cell>
                            <cell>Doe</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bull</cell>
                            <cell>Cow</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bullock or Steer</cell>
                            <cell>Heifer</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Cock</cell>
                            <cell>Hen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Dog</cell>
                            <cell>Bitch</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Drake</cell>
                            <cell>Duck</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Duke</cell>
                            <cell>Duchess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Earl</cell>
                            <cell>Countess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Father</cell>
                            <cell>Mother</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Friar</cell>
                            <cell>Nun</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Gander</cell>
                            <cell>Goose</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Hart</cell>
                            <cell>Roe</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Horse</cell>
                            <cell>Mare</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Husband</cell>
                            <cell>Wife</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>King</cell>
                            <cell>Queen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Lad</cell>
                            <cell>Lass</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Lord</cell>
                            <cell>Lady</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Man</cell>
                            <cell>Woman</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Marquis</cell>
                            <cell>Marchioness</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Master</cell>
                            <cell>Mistress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Nephew</cell>
                            <cell>Niece</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Ram</cell>
                            <cell>Ewe</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Singer</cell>
                            <cell>Singer</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Sloven</cell>
                            <cell>Slut</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Son</cell>
                            <cell>Daughter</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Stag</cell>
                            <cell>Hind</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Uncle</cell>
                            <cell>Aunt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Widower</cell>
                            <cell>Widow</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Wizard</cell>
                            <cell>Witch</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="11"/>
                <paragraph>Mention those of which the gender is expressed by a difference of termination. <linebreak/><table cols="2" rows="40">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Male</cell>
                            <cell>Female</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Abbott</cell>
                            <cell>Abbess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Actor</cell>
                            <cell>Actress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Adulterer</cell>
                            <cell>Adulteress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Ambassador</cell>
                            <cell>Ambassadress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Arbiter</cell>
                            <cell>Arbitress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Baron</cell>
                            <cell>Baroness</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Benefactor</cell>
                            <cell>Benefactress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Chanter</cell>
                            <cell>Chantress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Conductor</cell>
                            <cell>Conductress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Count</cell>
                            <cell>Countess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Deacon</cell>
                            <cell>Deaconess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Elector</cell>
                            <cell>Electress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Emperor</cell>
                            <cell>Empress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Enchanter</cell>
                            <cell>Enchantress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Governor</cell>
                            <cell>Governess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Heir</cell>
                            <cell>Heiress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Hunter</cell>
                            <cell>Huntress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Host</cell>
                            <cell>Hostess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Jew</cell>
                            <cell>Jewess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Lion</cell>
                            <cell>Lioness</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Master</cell>
                            <cell>Mistress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Mayor</cell>
                            <cell>Mayoress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Patron</cell>
                            <cell>Patroness</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Peer</cell>
                            <cell>Peeress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Poet</cell>
                            <cell>Poetess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Priest</cell>
                            <cell>Priestess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Prince</cell>
                            <cell>Princess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Prior</cell>
                            <cell>Prioress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Prophet</cell>
                            <cell>Prophetess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Protector</cell>
                            <cell>Protectress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Shepherd</cell>
                            <cell>Shepherdess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Songster</cell>
                            <cell>Songstress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Sorcerer</cell>
                            <cell>Sorceress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Sultan</cell>
                            <cell>Sultaness</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Tiger</cell>
                            <cell>Tigress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Traitor</cell>
                            <cell>Traitress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Tutor</cell>
                            <cell>Tutress</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Viscount</cell>
                            <cell>Viscountess</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Votary</cell>
                            <cell>Votaress</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    But the feminine gender of <italic>administrator</italic> is <italic>administratrix</italic>; of <italic>executor</italic>, <italic>executrix</italic>; of <italic>hero</italic>, <italic>heroine</italic>; and of <italic>landgrave</italic>, the feminine is <italic>landgravine</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="12"/>
                <paragraph>Mention the nouns of which the genders are expressed by compounded words. <linebreak/><table cols="2" rows="6">
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>A cock-sparrow</cell>
                            <cell>A hen-sparrow</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>A he-goat</cell>
                            <cell>A she-goat</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>A male-child</cell>
                            <cell>A female-child</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>A male-servant</cell>
                            <cell>A female-servant</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>A man-servant</cell>
                            <cell>A maid-servant</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Male-descendants</cell>
                            <cell>Female-descendants</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there not such genders in the English language as the <italic>common</italic> and <italic>doubtful</italic> genders? <linebreak/>Yes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What it meant by the <italic>common</italic> gender? <linebreak/>When the same word is used as either masculine or feminine, as <italic>parent</italic>, <italic>child</italic>, <italic>cousin</italic>, <italic>friend</italic>, <italic>neighbour</italic>, <italic>servant</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by the <italic>doubtful</italic> gender? <linebreak/>When the sex of the person, or animal spoken of is not known; as when we speak of an infant, the word <italic>it</italic> is applied to distinguish the sex. So of an animal.    </paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. The introduction of the <italic>common</italic> or <italic>doubtful</italic> genders into a compilation on English Grammar is unusual; but the Compiler of the <small_caps>Catechism</small_caps> of <small_caps>English Grammar</small_caps> apprehends, that the bare mention of the above examples prove, that their omission is an unpardonable oversight in the compilations already extant on the subject.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Number.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Number.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is meant by the grammatical expression "<italic>Number</italic>?" <linebreak/>The idea of unity or plurality; that is whether the subject spoken of consists of one or more than one.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many numbers are there? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="13"/>
Two; the <italic>singular</italic> and the <italic>plural</italic>.     </paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the singular number used? <linebreak/>When but one person, thing, or place is spoken of; as a <italic>man</italic>, a <italic>horse</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When the plural? <linebreak/>When more than one person, thing, or place is spoken of; as <italic>men</italic>, <italic>horses</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are nouns converted from the singular number into the plural? <linebreak/>In general, by the addition of <italic>s</italic> to the singular; as <italic>book</italic>, <italic>books</italic>; <italic>horse</italic>, <italic>horses</italic>; <italic>face</italic>, <italic>faces</italic>. But when the singular ends in <italic>h</italic>, <italic>o</italic>, <italic>ss</italic>, or <italic>x</italic>, the plural is formed by adding <italic>es</italic>; as <italic>coach</italic>, <italic>coaches</italic>; <italic>potato</italic>, <italic>potatoes</italic>; <italic>kiss</italic>, <italic>kisses</italic>; <italic>box</italic>, <italic>boxes</italic>. The plurals of <italic>folio</italic>, <italic>nuncio</italic>, <italic>punctilio</italic>, and <italic>seraglio</italic>, are written with the addition only of an <italic>s</italic>; as <italic>folios</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How is the plural formed when the singular ends in <italic>f</italic> or <italic>fe</italic>? <linebreak/>In <italic>ves</italic>; as <italic>loaf</italic>, <italic>loaves</italic>; <italic>calf</italic>, <italic>calves</italic>; <italic>half</italic>, <italic>halves</italic>; <italic>wife</italic>, <italic>wives</italic>; <italic>thief</italic>, <italic>thieves</italic>. But <italic>grief</italic>, <italic>brief</italic>, <italic>relief</italic>, <italic>proof</italic>, <italic>scarf</italic>, <italic>wharf</italic>, <italic>gulf</italic>, <italic>turf</italic>, and several others, form the plural by the addition of <italic>s</italic> to the singular; as <italic>griefs</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How is the plural formed when the singular ends in <italic>ff</italic>? <linebreak/>By the addition of <italic>s</italic>; as <italic>snuff</italic>, <italic>snuffs</italic>; <italic>muff</italic>, <italic>muffs</italic>; <italic>stuff</italic>, <italic>stuffs</italic>. But <italic>staff</italic> makes <italic>staves</italic>.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How is the plural formed when the singular ends in <italic>y</italic>? <linebreak/>By changing the <italic>y</italic> into <italic>ies</italic>; as <italic>fly</italic>, <italic>flies</italic>; <italic>lady</italic>, <italic>ladies</italic>; <italic>lily</italic>, <italic>lilies</italic>; <italic>conveniency</italic>, <italic>conveniencies</italic>. <folio folio_no="B"/> <pagebreak page_no="14"/> But if a vowel immediately precedes the <italic>y</italic>, the plural is formed by the addition only of <italic>s</italic> to the singular; as <italic>boy</italic>, <italic>boys</italic>; <italic>key</italic>, <italic>keys</italic>; <italic>journey</italic>, <italic>journeys</italic>; <italic>valley</italic>, <italic>valleys</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there not some words which form their plurals irregularly? <linebreak/>Yes: <italic>man</italic> in the plural is <italic>men</italic>; <italic>woman</italic> <italic>women</italic>; <italic>child</italic>, <italic>children</italic>; <italic>ox</italic>, <italic>oxen</italic>; <italic>alderman</italic>, <italic>aldermen</italic>; <italic>brother</italic>, <italic>brethren or brothers</italic>; <italic>foot</italic>, <italic>feet</italic>; <italic>goose</italic>, <italic>geese</italic>; <italic>penny</italic>, <italic>pence or pennies</italic>; <italic>tooth</italic>, <italic>teeth</italic>; <italic>die</italic>, <italic>dice</italic>; <italic>die</italic>, <italic>dies</italic>; <italic>louse</italic>, <italic>lice</italic>; <italic>mouse</italic>, <italic>mice</italic>. <linebreak/>Also the following Hebrew, (Greek, Latin, and French words form their plurals in the same manner as they do in the original languages. <italic>Antithesis</italic> makes <italic>antitheses</italic>; <italic>appendix</italic>, <italic>appendices</italic> or <italic>appendixes</italic>; <italic>arcanum</italic>, <italic>arcana</italic>; <italic>automaton</italic>, <italic>automata</italic>; <italic>axis</italic>, <italic>axes</italic>; <italic>basis</italic>, <italic>bases</italic>; <italic>beau</italic>, <italic>beaux</italic>; <italic>calx</italic>, <italic>calces</italic>; <italic>cherub</italic>, <italic>cherubim</italic>; <italic>crisis</italic>, <italic>crises</italic>; <italic>datum</italic>, <italic>data</italic>; <italic>effluvium</italic>, <italic>effluvia</italic>; <italic>ellipsis</italic>, <italic>ellipses</italic>; <italic>emphasis</italic>, <italic>emphases</italic>: <italic>encomium</italic>, <italic>encomia</italic> or <italic>encomiums</italic>; <italic>erratum</italic>, <italic>errata</italic>; <italic>genius</italic>, <italic>genii</italic> or <italic>geniuses</italic>; <italic>genus</italic>, <italic>genera</italic>; <italic>hypothesis</italic>, <italic>hypotheses</italic>; <italic>index</italic>, <italic>indices</italic> or <italic>indexes</italic>; <italic>lamina</italic>, <italic>laminœ</italic>; <italic>magus</italic>, <italic>magi</italic>; <italic>medium</italic>, <italic>media</italic> or <italic>mediums</italic>; <italic>memorandum</italic>, <italic>memorandums</italic> or <italic>memoranda</italic>; <italic>metamorphosis</italic>, <italic>metamorphoses</italic>; <italic>phenomenon</italic>, <italic>phenomena</italic>; <italic>radius</italic>, <italic>radii</italic>; <italic>seraph</italic>, <italic>seraphim</italic>; <italic>stamen</italic>, <italic>stamina</italic>; <italic>stratum</italic>, <italic>strata</italic>; <italic>vortex</italic>, <italic>vortices</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there not some nouns which have not the plural number? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="15"/>Yes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention them: <linebreak/><italic>Wheat</italic>, <italic>pitch</italic>, <italic>gold</italic>, <italic>silver</italic>, <italic>copper</italic>, <italic>iron</italic>, <italic>sloth</italic>, <italic>pride</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention those which hare not the singular number. <linebreak/><italic>Deer</italic>, <italic>sheep</italic>, <italic>swine</italic>, <italic>series</italic>, <italic>species</italic>, <italic>apparatus</italic>, <italic>literati</italic>, <italic>minutiӕ</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Case.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Case.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>How many cases have nouns in the English language? <linebreak/>Three: the <italic>nominative</italic>, the <italic>genitive</italic> or <italic>possessive</italic>, and the <italic>accusative</italic> or <italic>objective</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are these cases distinguished? <linebreak/>The <italic>nominative case</italic> is the subject of the sentence, and usually precedes the verb; the <italic>genitive</italic> or <italic>possessive</italic> betokens the possession of some quality or property, and generally precedes the substantive which governs it; and the <italic>accusative</italic> or <italic>possessive</italic> expresses the object of an action, passion, or relation, and commonly follows a verb active or a preposition.</paragraph>                          <paragraph>What is the meaning of the term "<italic>Case of a noun</italic>?" <linebreak/>The different terminations or inflections to which it is subject.       </paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How is the genitive case formed? <linebreak/>By the addition of <italic>s</italic> to the nominative, with an apostrophe over the <italic>s</italic>; as <italic>John's</italic> hat; the <italic>boy's</italic> book. But when the genitive case plural of a noun ending in <italic>s</italic> is to be expressed, <folio folio_no="B2"/> <pagebreak page_no="16"/> the apostrophic <italic>s</italic> is omitted, and the apostrophe alone used; as the <italic>tailors'</italic> company; the <italic>boys'</italic> hats. </paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — The generality of Compilers of English Grammar direct, that when a singular noun ends in <small_caps>ss</small_caps>, the apostrophic <small_caps>s</small_caps> should be omitted, and the apostrophe alone used, as in these examples "for goodness' sake," "for righteousness' sake." That this direction is improper, is clear from the unpleasant hissing sound occasioned in the pronunciation of the sentences thus placed. This inconvenience may be avoided by arranging the sentences thus; <italic>for the sake of righteousness</italic>; <italic>for the sake of goodness</italic>. In colloquial expressions, however, the genitive case of a noun ending in <italic>ss</italic> may be expressed either way; but when expressed by the apostrophe, the apostrophe <italic>s</italic> should not be omitted. Thus the expression "<italic>the advice of your mistress</italic>," or "<italic>your mistress's advice</italic>" is equally proper.       </paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How is the accusative or objective case formed? <linebreak/>It is governed by the verb or preposition. But the only words in the English language which alter the termination of the nominative in the formation of the accusative case, are the personal pronouns <italic>I</italic>, <italic>thou</italic>, <italic>he</italic> or <italic>she</italic>, <italic>we</italic>, <italic>ye</italic> or <italic>you</italic>, and <italic>they</italic>; and the relative pronoun <italic>who</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline the nouns or substantives <italic>father</italic> and <italic>son</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="3" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell></cell>
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Nom.</cell>
                            <cell>Father</cell>
                            <cell>Fathers</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Gen. or Poss.</cell>
                            <cell>Father's</cell>
                            <cell>Fathers'</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Acc. or Object.</cell>
                            <cell>Father</cell>
                            <cell>Fathers</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Nom.</cell>
                            <cell>Son</cell>
                            <cell>Sons</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Gen. or Poss.</cell>
                            <cell>Son's</cell>
                            <cell>Sons'</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Acc. or Object.</cell>
                            <cell>Son</cell>
                            <cell>Sons</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="17"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Adnouns or Adjectives.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Adnouns or Adjectives.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is an adnoun or adjective? <linebreak/>A word, which when joined to a substantive, expresses its nature or quality; as a <italic>virtuous woman</italic>; a <italic>handsome girl</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the property of an adjective? <linebreak/>Only comparison; for in English, adjectives are not varied in their terminations as to gender, number, or case.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How many degrees of comparison are there? <linebreak/>Three; the <italic>positive</italic>, the <italic>comparative</italic>, and the <italic>superlative</italic>.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>What does the <italic>positive</italic> degree express? <linebreak/>Simply the quality of the subject or thing spoken of; as <italic>wise</italic>, <italic>good</italic>, <italic>happy</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What the comparative? <linebreak/>The signification of the positive, increased or diminished in a greater or less degree; as wiser, smaller, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the comparative degree used? <linebreak/>When only two things are compared; as <italic>he is wiser than I</italic>; <italic>she is the more prudent of the two</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What does the superlative degree express? <linebreak/>The signification of the positive, increased or lessened to the greatest or least degree; as <italic>wisest</italic>, <italic>least</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are the degrees of comparison formed? <linebreak/>In monosyllables, the comparative is formed from the positive by adding <italic>r</italic> to the positive, if it ends with a silent <italic>e</italic>; and <italic>er</italic>, if it ends <folio folio_no="B3"/><pagebreak page_no="18"/> with a consonant; as <italic>wise</italic>, <italic>wiser</italic>; <italic>great</italic>, <italic>greater</italic>. The superlative is formed by adding <italic>st</italic> and <italic>est</italic> to the positive; as <italic>wise</italic>, <italic>wisest</italic>; <italic>great</italic>, <italic>greatest</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>    
                <paragraph>How are dissyllables and polysyllables compared? <linebreak/>By <italic>more</italic> and <italic>most</italic>; as <italic>splendid</italic>, <italic>more splendid</italic>, <italic>most splendid</italic>; <italic>convenient</italic>, <italic>more convenient</italic>, <italic>most convenient</italic>. But dissyllables ending in <italic>y</italic>, or in <italic>le</italic> after a mute, or accented on the last syllable, are generally compared by <italic>r</italic> or <italic>er</italic>, and <italic>st</italic> or <italic>est</italic>; as <italic>happy</italic>, <italic>happier</italic>, <italic>happiest</italic>; <italic>base</italic>, <italic>baser</italic>, <italic>basest</italic>; <italic>polite</italic>, <italic>politer</italic>, <italic>politest</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there not some adjectives which form the degrees of comparison  irregularly? <linebreak/>Yes.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>Mention them! <linebreak/><table cols="3" rows="8">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Positive</cell>
                            <cell>Comparative</cell>
                            <cell>Superlative</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Good</cell>
                            <cell>Better</cell>
                            <cell>Best</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bad</cell>
                            <cell>Worse</cell>
                            <cell>Worst</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Little</cell>
                            <cell>Less</cell>
                            <cell>Least</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Much <italic>or</italic> many</cell>
                            <cell>More</cell>
                            <cell>Most</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Near</cell>
                            <cell>Nearer</cell>
                            <cell>Nearest <italic>or</italic> next</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Late</cell>
                            <cell>Later</cell>
                            <cell>Latest <italic>or</italic> last</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Old</cell>
                            <cell>Older <italic>or</italic> elder</cell>
                            <cell>Oldest <italic>or</italic> eldest</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>                
                <paragraph>Are there not some adjectives in the English language which do not admit of comparison? <linebreak/>Yes; such as express a finite and superlative sense in themselves; as <italic>perfect</italic>, <italic>superior</italic>, <italic>infinite</italic>, <italic>chief</italic>, <italic>right</italic>, <italic>universal</italic>, <italic>extreme</italic>, <italic>supreme</italic>, and some others; and therefore the expressions <italic>chiefest</italic>, <italic>supremest</italic>, <italic>most perfect</italic>, <italic>more superior</italic>, <italic>extremest</italic>, &amp;c. are inaccurate.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="19"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Pronouns.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Pronouns.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the pronoun? <linebreak/>It is a substitute for the noun, and is used to avoid the repetition of the same noun; as we say <italic>Death is certain; it awaits us all</italic>, instead of saying <italic>death is certain; death awaits us all</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many kinds of pronouns are there? <linebreak/>Three; the <italic>personal</italic>, the <italic>relative</italic>, and the <italic>adjective</italic> pronouns.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What are the properties of pronouns? <linebreak/>Person, number, gender, and case.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many personal pronouns are there? <linebreak/>Five; <italic>I</italic>, <italic>thou</italic> or <italic>you</italic>, <italic>he</italic>, <italic>she</italic>, and <italic>it</italic>, <italic>we</italic>, <italic>ye</italic> or <italic>you</italic>, and <italic>they</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline the personal pronoun <italic>I</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="3">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell></cell>
                            <cell>Nom.</cell>
                            <cell>Gen.</cell>
                            <cell>Acc.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">Singular</cell>
                            <cell role="data">I</cell>
                            <cell role="data">Mine</cell>
                            <cell role="data">Me</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell role="heading">Plural</cell>
                            <cell role="data">We</cell>
                            <cell role="data">Ours</cell>
                            <cell role="data">Us</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>thou</italic> or <italic>you</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Thou or you</cell>
                            <cell>Thine or yours</cell>
                            <cell>Thee or you</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                            <cell>Ye our you</cell>
                            <cell>Yours</cell>
                            <cell>You</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>    </paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>he</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>He</cell>
                            <cell>His</cell>
                            <cell>Him</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                            <cell>They</cell>
                            <cell>Theirs</cell>
                            <cell>Them</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>    </paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>she</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>She</cell>
                            <cell>Hers</cell>
                            <cell>Her</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                            <cell>They</cell>
                            <cell>Theirs</cell>
                            <cell>Them</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>it</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>It</cell>
                            <cell>Its</cell>
                            <cell>It</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                            <cell>They</cell>
                            <cell>Theirs</cell>
                            <cell>Them</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="20"/>
                <paragraph>Mention the relative pronouns. <linebreak/><italic>Who</italic>, <italic>which</italic>, <italic>what</italic>, and <italic>that</italic>; of which only the first is declinable.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>who</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell></cell>
                            <cell>Nom.</cell>
                            <cell>Gen.</cell>
                            <cell>Acc.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular &amp; Plural</cell>
                            <cell>Who</cell>
                            <cell>Whose</cell>
                            <cell>Whom</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>                
                <paragraph>Decline <italic>whoever</italic>. <linebreak/><table cols="4" rows="1">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Singular &amp; Plural</cell>
                            <cell>Whoever</cell>
                            <cell>Whosoever</cell>
                            <cell>Whomsoever</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How are the adjective pronouns subdivided? <linebreak/>Into the <italic>possessive</italic>, the <italic>distributive</italic>, and the <italic>demonstrative</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the possessive pronouns? <linebreak/><italic>My</italic>, <italic>thy</italic>, <italic>his</italic>, <italic>her</italic>, <italic>our</italic>, <italic>your</italic>, and <italic>their</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the distributive? <linebreak/><italic>Each</italic>, <italic>every</italic>, <italic>either</italic> and <italic>neither</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the demonstrative? <linebreak/><italic>This</italic> and <italic>that</italic>, with their plurals <italic>these</italic> and <italic>those</italic>.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Verbs.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Verbs.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is a verb? <linebreak/>A word which describes the action, passion, or existence of the agent; as I <italic>fight</italic>; I <italic>love</italic>; I <italic>live</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many sorts of verbs belong to the English language? <linebreak/>Three; the <italic>active</italic> or <italic>transitive</italic>, the <italic>passive</italic>, and the <italic>neuter</italic> or <italic>intransitive</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by an active or transitive verb? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="21"/>
                    A word which expresses some action or passion; as <italic>I move</italic>, <italic>I love</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What by a passive verb? <linebreak/>A word which betokens the receiving of an action or passion; as <italic>I am moved</italic>, <italic>I am loved</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What by a verb neuter? <linebreak/>A verb which betokens neither action nor passion, but merely a state of being; as <italic>I exist</italic>, <italic>I sleep</italic>, <italic>I drink</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there no other subdivisions of verbs? <linebreak/>Yes: those of <italic>auxiliary</italic> or <italic>helping verbs</italic>, and <italic>principal verbs</italic>; as also those of <italic>regular</italic> and <italic>irregular verbs</italic>. Verbs are also said to be <italic>personal</italic> and <italic>impersonal</italic>.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>What are the properties of verbs? <linebreak/><italic>Number</italic>, <italic>person</italic>, <italic>mood</italic>, <italic>tense</italic>, <italic>voice</italic>, and <italic>conjugation</italic>.</paragraph>                   <paragraph>How many numbers have verbs? <linebreak/>Two; the <italic>singular</italic> and the <italic>plural</italic>.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How many persons? <linebreak/>Three in each number; as <italic>I</italic>, <italic>thou</italic> or <italic>you</italic>, <italic>he</italic>, <italic>she</italic>, or <italic>it</italic> in the singular; and in the plural, <italic>we</italic>, <italic>ye</italic> or <italic>you</italic>, and <italic>they</italic>.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>How many moods belong to English verbs? <linebreak/>Five: the <italic>indicative</italic>, the <italic>imperative</italic>, the <italic>potential</italic>, the <italic>subjunctive</italic>, and the <italic>infinitive</italic>.</paragraph>                              <paragraph>What is mood? <linebreak/>The change which a verb undergoes to express the various modifications and circumstances of action, passion, or being.</paragraph>                   <paragraph>When is the indicative mood used? <linebreak/>When we declare any thing positively, or <pagebreak page_no="22"/> ask a question; as <italic>I love</italic>, <italic>I write</italic>, or <italic>do I love?</italic> <italic>do I write?</italic> </paragraph>
                <paragraph>When the imperative mood? <linebreak/>When we command, exhort, entreat; as <italic>write</italic>, <italic>speak</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What does the potential mood signify? <linebreak/>The possibility, power, will, or obligation of acting, and it is known by the signs, <italic>may</italic>, <italic>can</italic>, <italic>might</italic>, <italic>could</italic>, <italic>would</italic>, <italic>should</italic>; as <italic>I may speak</italic>, <italic>I can write</italic>, <italic>I could eat</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What does the subjunctive mood imply? <linebreak/>A doubt, condition, wish, or supposition, and is preceded by <italic>if</italic>, <italic>though</italic>, <italic>unless</italic>, or some other conjunction expressed or understood as <italic>if he come</italic>, <italic>though he fail</italic>, <italic>I wish he were to come</italic>, <italic>if it happen</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What does the infinitive mood express? <linebreak/>The form of the verb in a general manner, and it is known by being preceded by the preposition <italic>to</italic>; as <italic>to write</italic>, <italic>to speak</italic> &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many <italic>participles</italic> are there belonging to English verbs? <linebreak/>Three; the <italic>present</italic> or <italic>active</italic>, the <italic>perfect</italic> or <italic>past</italic>, and the <italic>compound perfect</italic>; as <italic>loving</italic>, <italic>loved</italic>, <italic>having loved</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by the expression "<italic>the tense of a verb?</italic>" <linebreak/>The manner in which the several distinctions or gradations of time can be expressed.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many tenses have English verbs? <linebreak/>Six; the <italic>present</italic>, the <italic>imperfect</italic> or <italic>preterimperfect</italic>, the <italic>perfect</italic> or <italic>preterperfect</italic>, the <italic>pluperfect</italic> or <italic>preterpluperfect</italic>, the <italic>future-imperfect</italic>, and the <italic>future-perfect</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="23"/>
                <paragraph>How are the tenses known? <linebreak/>By their signs.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What are the signs of the tenses? <linebreak/><italic>Am</italic> or <italic>do</italic> of the present tense; <italic>did</italic> or <italic>was</italic> of the imperfect or preterimperfect; <italic>have</italic> of the perfect or preterperfect; <italic>had</italic> of the pluperfect or preterpluperfect; <italic>shall</italic> or <italic>will</italic> of the future-imperfect; and <italic>shall</italic> or <italic>will have</italic> of the future-perfect.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many voices are there in the English language? <linebreak/>Two; the <italic>active</italic> and the <italic>passive</italic>; which are distinguished according as the affirmation regards something that is done or something that is suffered; as <italic>I love</italic>, or <italic>I am loved</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the meaning of conjugation? <linebreak/>The various modifications which a verb takes, with reference to the time and manner of the action to be described.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>You said, that besides subdividing verbs into <italic>active</italic>, <italic>passive</italic>, and <italic>neuter</italic>, verbs were also divided into <italic>auxiliary</italic> or <italic>helping verbs</italic>, and <italic>principal verbs</italic>; as also into <italic>regular</italic> and <italic>irregular verbs</italic>. What is meant by auxiliary or helping verbs? <linebreak/>A word prefixed to express the times or tenses of verbs. They are <italic>be</italic>, <italic>can</italic>, <italic>do</italic>, <italic>have</italic>, <italic>let</italic>, <italic>may</italic>, <italic>must</italic>, <italic>shall</italic>, and <italic>will</italic>; all which, except <italic>be</italic> and <italic>have</italic>, are defective in the tenses, having only the present and perfect tenses; and <italic>let</italic> and <italic>must</italic> have no variation at all.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Form these auxiliary verbs. <linebreak/><table cols="2" rows="6">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Can</cell>
                            <cell>Could</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Do</cell>
                            <cell>Did</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>May</cell>
                            <cell>Might</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Shall</cell>
                            <cell>Should</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Will</cell>
                            <cell>Would</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="24"/>
                <paragraph>When is a verb said to be <italic>regular</italic> and when <italic>irregular</italic>? <linebreak/>All verbs are regular which form their imperfect tense and perfect or past participle in <italic>d</italic> or <italic>ed</italic>; irregular verbs are such as do not form their imperfect tense and perfect or past participle in <italic>d</italic> or <italic>ed</italic>; as present <italic>begin</italic>, imperfect <italic>began</italic>, perfect or past participle <italic>begun</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the distinction of a <italic>personal</italic> and an <italic>impersonal</italic> verb? <linebreak/>Personal verbs are conjugated with the personal pronouns, or some noun; but verbs impersonal admit of no other nominative case in the conjugating of them than the pronoun <italic>it</italic>; as <italic>it behoves</italic>, <italic>it happens</italic>, <italic>it seems</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Conjugate the auxiliary or neuter verb <small_caps>to be</small_caps>. <linebreak/><heading level="2">Indicative Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I am</cell>
                            <cell>We are</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou art, <italic>or</italic> you are</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you are</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He, she, <italic>or</italic> it is</cell>
                            <cell>They are</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I was</cell>
                            <cell>We were</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou wast, <italic>or</italic> you were</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you were</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He was</cell>
                            <cell>They were</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I have been</cell>
                            <cell>We have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou hast been, <italic>or</italic> you have been</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He has been</cell>
                            <cell>They have been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <pagebreak page_no="25"/>
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I had been</cell>
                            <cell>We had been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou hadst been, <italic>or</italic> you had been</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you had been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He had been</cell>
                            <cell>They had been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Future-Imperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                            <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt be, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                            <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will be</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Future-Perfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                            <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have been, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                            <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Imperative Mood</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let me be</cell>
                            <cell>Let us be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Be thou <italic>or</italic> do thou be, <italic>or</italic> be you <italic>or</italic> do you be</cell>
                            <cell>Be ye <italic>or</italic> you, <italic>or</italic> do ye <italic>or</italic> you be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let him be</cell>
                            <cell>Let them be</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <folio folio_no="C"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="26"/>
                    <heading level="2">Potential Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst be, <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can be</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst be; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have been; <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can have been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <pagebreak page_no="27"/>                    
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst have been; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Subjunctive Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Time</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If I be</cell>
                            <cell>If we be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If thou <italic>or</italic> you be</cell>
                            <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you be</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If he be</cell>
                            <cell>If they be</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>                                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If I were</cell>
                            <cell>If we were</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If thou <italic>or</italic> you were</cell>
                            <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you were</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If he were</cell>
                            <cell>If they were</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — <italic>The remaining tenses of this mood are conjugated in a manner similar to the correspondent tenses of the Indicative Mood, with the addition of the conjunction.</italic>
                    <heading level="2">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>To be</cell>
                            <cell>To have been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Participles</heading>
                    <table cols="3" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                            <cell>Compound</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Being</cell>
                            <cell>Been</cell>
                            <cell>Having Been</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>Conjugate the auxiliary verb <small_caps>to have</small_caps>. <linebreak/><heading level="2">Indicative Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense</heading>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular</cell>
                                <cell>Plural</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>I have</cell>
                                <cell>We have</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Thou hast, <italic>or</italic> you have</cell>
                                <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you have</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>He, she, <italic>or</italic> it hath <italic>or</italic> has</cell>
                                <cell>They have</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>          
                        <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular</cell>
                                <cell>Plural</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>I had</cell>
                                <cell>We had</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Thou hadst, <italic>or</italic> you had</cell>
                                <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you had</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>He had</cell>
                                <cell>They had</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                        <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect</heading>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular</cell>
                                <cell>Plural</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>I have had</cell>
                                <cell>We have had</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Thou hast had, <italic>or</italic> you have had</cell>
                                <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you have had</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>He hath <italic>or</italic> has had</cell>
                                <cell>They have had</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>                    
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I had had</cell>
                            <cell>We had had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou hadst had, <italic>or</italic> you had had</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you had had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He hath <italic>or</italic> had had</cell>
                            <cell>They had had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>      
                    <pagebreak page_no="29"/>
                    <heading level="3">Future-Imperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                            <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                            <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Future-Perfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                            <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt have had, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                            <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Imperative Mood</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let me have</cell>
                            <cell>Let us have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Have thou <italic>or</italic> do thou have, <italic>or</italic> have you <italic>or</italic> do you have</cell>
                            <cell>Have ye <italic>or</italic> you, <italic>or</italic> do ye <italic>or</italic> you have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let him have</cell>
                            <cell>Let them have</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Potential Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have, <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can have</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <pagebreak page_no="30"/>                    
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst have; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have had; <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can had been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can have had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst have had; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="31"/>                    
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Subjunctive Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Time</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If I have</cell>
                            <cell>If we have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If thou have, <italic>or</italic> you have</cell>
                            <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you have</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If he have</cell>
                            <cell>If they have</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. <italic>The remaining tenses of this mood are conjugated in a manner similar to the correspondent tenses of the Indicative Mood, with the addition of the conjunction.</italic>
                    <heading level="2">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>To have</cell>
                            <cell>To have had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Participles</heading>
                    <table cols="3" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                            <cell>Compound</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Having</cell>
                            <cell>had</cell>
                            <cell>Having had</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                <small_caps>Active Voice. To Love.</small_caps> <linebreak/>
                <heading level="2">Indicative Mood.</heading>
                <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I love, am loving, <italic>or</italic> do love</cell>
                        <cell>We love, are loving, <italic>or</italic> do love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou lovest, art loving, <italic>or</italic> dost love; <italic>or</italic> you love, are loving, <italic>or</italic> do love</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you love, are loving, <italic>or</italic> do love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He loves, is loving, <italic>or</italic> does love</cell>
                        <cell>They love, are loving or <ed_note type="correction">o</ed_note> do love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <pagebreak page_no="32"/>    
                <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I loved, was loving, <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                        <cell>We loved, were loving, <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou lovedst, wast loving, <italic>or</italic> didst love; <italic>or</italic> you loved, were loving, <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you loved, were loving, <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He loved, was loving, <italic>or</italic> did love</cell>
                        <cell>They loved, were loving or did love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I have loved</cell>
                        <cell>We have loved.</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou hast loved, <italic>or</italic> you have loved</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He has loved</cell>
                        <cell>They have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I had loved</cell>
                        <cell>We had loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou hadst loved, <italic>or</italic> you had loved</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you had loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He had loved</cell>
                        <cell>They had loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Future-Imperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                        <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt <ed_note type="correction">will</ed_note> love, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                        <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <pagebreak page_no="33"/>
                <heading level="3">Future-Perfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                        <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt <ed_note type="correction">will</ed_note> have loved, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                        <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="2">Imperative Mood.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Let me love</cell>
                        <cell>Let us love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Love, love thou <italic>or</italic> you, <italic>or</italic> do thou <italic>or</italic> you love</cell>
                        <cell>Love ye <italic>or</italic> you, <italic>or</italic> do ye <italic>or</italic> you love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Let him love</cell>
                        <cell>Let them love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="2">Potential Mood.</heading>
                <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                        <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst love, <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                        <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                        <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <pagebreak page_no="34"/>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst love; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                        <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                        <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <pagebreak page_no="34"/>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have loved; <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                        <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                        <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <pagebreak page_no="34"/>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst have loved; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                        <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <pagebreak page_no="35"/>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                        <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="2">Subjunctive Mood.</heading>
                <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If I love</cell>
                        <cell>I we love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If thou love, <italic>or</italic> if you love</cell>
                        <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you love</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If he love</cell>
                        <cell>If they love</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If I loved</cell>
                        <cell>I we loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If thou loved, <italic>or</italic> if you loved</cell>
                        <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If he loved</cell>
                        <cell>If they loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect.</heading>
                <table cols="2" rows="4">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Singular</cell>
                        <cell>Plural</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If I have loved</cell>
                        <cell>I we have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If thou have loved, <italic>or</italic> if you have loved</cell>
                        <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>If he have loved</cell>
                        <cell>If they have loved <ed_note type="correction">love</ed_note> </cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <small_caps>Note</small_caps>. The remaining tenses of this mood are conjugated in a similar manner to those of the <small_caps>Indicative Mood</small_caps>.
                <heading level="2">Infinitive Mood.</heading>
                <table cols="3" rows="2">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Present</cell>
                        <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row>
                        <cell>To love</cell>
                        <cell>To have loved</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                <pagebreak page_no="36"/>
                <heading level="2">Participles.</heading>
                <table cols="3" rows="2">
                    <row role="heading">
                        <cell>Present</cell>
                        <cell>Perfect</cell>
                        <cell>Compound Perfect</cell>
                    </row>
                    <row role="data">
                        <cell>Loving</cell>
                        <cell>Loved</cell>
                        <cell>Having loved.</cell>
                    </row>
                </table>
                </paragraph>
                <heading level="2"><small_caps>Passive Voice.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>How is a passive verb conjugated? <linebreak/>By annexing the inflections of the auxiliary verb <small_caps>to be</small_caps>, through all its changes of person, mood, and tense to the perfect or past participle of the active voice of the verb to be conjugated.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are passive verbs formed? <linebreak/>By the addition of <italic>d</italic> or <italic>ed</italic> to the active verb.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><heading_undefined>TO BE LOVED.</heading_undefined>
                    <heading level="2">Indicative Mood.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I am loved</cell>
                            <cell>We are loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou art loved, <italic>or</italic> you are loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you are loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He is loved</cell>
                            <cell>They are loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I was loved</cell>
                            <cell>We were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou wast loved, <italic>or</italic> you were loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He was loved</cell>
                            <cell>They were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>                    
                    <pagebreak page_no="37"/>
                    <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>We have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou hast been loved, <italic>or</italic> you have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He has been loved</cell>
                            <cell>They have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>                    
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I had been loved</cell>
                            <cell>We had been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou hadst been loved, <italic>or</italic> you had been loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you had been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He had been loved</cell>
                            <cell>They had been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>      
                    <heading level="3">Future-Imperfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                            <cell>We shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou shalt <italic>or</italic> wilt be loved, <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                            <cell>They shall <italic>or</italic> will be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>      
                    <heading level="3">Future-Perfect</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I shall have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>We shall have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou wilt have been loved, <italic>or</italic> you will have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you will have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <folio folio_no="D"/>
                        <pagebreak page_no="38"/>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He will have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>They will have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Imperative Mood.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let me be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Let us be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Be thou loved, <italic>or</italic> do thou be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Be ye <italic>or</italic> you, <italic>or</italic> do ye <italic>or</italic> you, be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Let him be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Let them be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Potential Mood.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou We mayst <italic>or</italic> canst be loved, <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst be loved; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="39"/>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Perfect or Preterperfect.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>We may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou We mayst <italic>or</italic> canst have been loved, <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>They may <italic>or</italic> can have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Pluperfect or Preterpluperfect.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>We might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, <italic>or</italic> shouldst have been loved; <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                            <cell>They might, could, would, <italic>or</italic> should have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <folio folio_no="D2"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="40"/>
                    <heading level="2">Subjunctive Mood.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If I be loved</cell>
                            <cell>If we be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If thou <italic>or</italic> you be loved</cell>
                            <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If he be loved</cell>
                            <cell>If they be loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect</heading>                                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If I were loved</cell>
                            <cell>If we were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If thou wert loved, <italic>or</italic> if you were loved</cell>
                            <cell>If ye <italic>or</italic> you were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>If he were loved</cell>
                            <cell>If they were loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <small_caps>Note</small_caps>. The remaining tenses of this mood are conjugated similarly to those of the <small_caps>Indicative Mood</small_caps>.
                    <heading level="2">Infinitive Mood</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>To be loved</cell>
                            <cell>To have been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Participles</heading>
                    <table cols="3" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                            <cell>Compound</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Being loved</cell>
                            <cell>Loved</cell>
                            <cell>Having been loved</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Irregular Verbs.">
                <heading level="1">Irregular Verbs.</heading>
                <paragraph>What is meant by an irregular verb? <linebreak/>Such a verb as does not form its imperfect or past tense, and perfect participle, by <italic>d</italic> or <pagebreak page_no="41"/> <italic>ed</italic>; as present <italic>I write</italic>, perfect, <italic>I wrote</italic>; perfect participle, <italic>I have written</italic>. </paragraph> 
                <paragraph>Conjugate the irregular verb <small_caps>to write</small_caps>. <linebreak/><heading level="2">Indicative Mood</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Present Tense.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I write</cell>
                            <cell>We write</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou writest, <italic>or</italic> you write</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you write</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He writes</cell>
                            <cell>They write</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="3">Imperfect or Preterimperfect.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Singular</cell>
                            <cell>Plural</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I wrote</cell>
                            <cell>We wrote</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou wrotest, <italic>or</italic> you wrote</cell>
                            <cell>Ye <italic>or</italic> you wrote</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He wrotes</cell>
                            <cell>They wrote</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <heading level="2">Infinitive Mood.</heading>
                    <table cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>To write</cell>
                            <cell>To have written</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are all the other moods and tenses of this irregular verb conjugated? <linebreak/>In the same manner as in the case of regular verbs.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>You have now conjugated a regular verb through both voices, as also an irregular verb. Can you give a list of irregular verbs? <linebreak/>Yes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/><folio folio_no="D3"/><pagebreak page_no="42"/>
                    <table cols="3" rows="100">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Present Tense</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past Tense</cell>
                            <cell>Perfect or Past Participle</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Abide</cell>
                            <cell>abode</cell>
                            <cell>abode</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Am</cell>
                            <cell>was</cell>
                            <cell>been</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Arise</cell>
                            <cell>arose</cell>
                            <cell>arisen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Awake</cell>
                            <cell>awoke <italic>or</italic> awaked</cell>
                            <cell>awaked</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bear (<italic>to bring forth</italic>)</cell>
                            <cell>bare</cell>
                            <cell>born</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bear (<italic>to carry</italic>)</cell>
                            <cell>bore</cell>
                            <cell>borne</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Beat</cell>
                            <cell>beat</cell>
                            <cell>beaten, <italic>or</italic> beat</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Begin</cell>
                            <cell>began</cell>
                            <cell>begun</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bend</cell>
                            <cell>bent</cell>
                            <cell>bent</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bereave</cell>
                            <cell>bereft</cell>
                            <cell>bereft <italic>or</italic> bereaved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Beseech</cell>
                            <cell>besought</cell>
                            <cell>besought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bid</cell>
                            <cell>bid, <italic>or</italic> bade</cell>
                            <cell>bidden, <italic>or</italic> bid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bind</cell>
                            <cell>bound</cell>
                            <cell>bound</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bite</cell>
                            <cell>bit</cell>
                            <cell>bitten, <italic>or</italic> bit</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bleed</cell>
                            <cell>bled</cell>
                            <cell>bled</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Blow</cell>
                            <cell>blew</cell>
                            <cell>blown</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Break</cell>
                            <cell>broke</cell>
                            <cell>broken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Breed</cell>
                            <cell>bred</cell>
                            <cell>bred</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Bring</cell>
                            <cell>brought</cell>
                            <cell>brought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Build</cell>
                            <cell>built</cell>
                            <cell>built</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Burst</cell>
                            <cell>burst</cell>
                            <cell>burst</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Buy</cell>
                            <cell>bought</cell>
                            <cell>bought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Cast</cell>
                            <cell>cast</cell>
                            <cell>cast</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Catch</cell>
                            <cell>caught</cell>
                            <cell>caught <italic>or</italic> catched</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Chide</cell>
                            <cell>chid</cell>
                            <cell>chidden, <italic>or</italic> chid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Cling</cell>
                            <cell>clung</cell>
                            <cell>clung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Come</cell>
                            <cell>came</cell>
                            <cell>come</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Cost</cell>
                            <cell>cost</cell>
                            <cell>cost</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Creep</cell>
                            <cell>crept</cell>
                            <cell>crept</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Choose</cell>
                            <cell>chose</cell>
                            <cell>chosen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="43"/>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Cleave (<italic>to split</italic>)</cell>
                            <cell>clove, <italic>or</italic> cleft</cell>
                            <cell>cleft, <italic>or</italic> cloven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Clothe</cell>
                            <cell>clothed </cell>
                            <cell>clothed <italic>or</italic> clad</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Cut</cell>
                            <cell>cut</cell>
                            <cell>cut</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Dare (<italic>to venture</italic>)</cell>
                            <cell>durst</cell>
                            <cell>dared</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Deal</cell>
                            <cell>dealt</cell>
                            <cell>dealt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Dig</cell>
                            <cell>dug <italic>or</italic> digged</cell>
                            <cell>dug <italic>or</italic> digged</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Do</cell>
                            <cell>did</cell>
                            <cell>done</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Draw</cell>
                            <cell>drew</cell>
                            <cell>drawn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Drive</cell>
                            <cell>drove</cell>
                            <cell>driven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Drink</cell>
                            <cell>drank</cell>
                            <cell>drunk</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Dwell</cell>
                            <cell>dwelt</cell>
                            <cell>dwelt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Eat</cell>
                            <cell>eat, <italic>or</italic> ate</cell>
                            <cell>eaten</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Fall</cell>
                            <cell>fell</cell>
                            <cell>fallen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Feed</cell>
                            <cell>fed</cell>
                            <cell>fed</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Feel</cell>
                            <cell>felt</cell>
                            <cell>felt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Fight</cell>
                            <cell>fought</cell>
                            <cell>fought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Find</cell>
                            <cell>found</cell>
                            <cell>found</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Flee</cell>
                            <cell>fled</cell>
                            <cell>fled</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Fling</cell>
                            <cell>flung</cell>
                            <cell>flung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Fly</cell>
                            <cell>flew</cell>
                            <cell>flown</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Forget</cell>
                            <cell>forgot</cell>
                            <cell>forgotten, <italic>or</italic> forgot</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Forsake</cell>
                            <cell>forsook</cell>
                            <cell>forsaken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Freeze</cell>
                            <cell>froze</cell>
                            <cell>frozen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Get</cell>
                            <cell>got</cell>
                            <cell>got</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Gild</cell>
                            <cell>gilt</cell>
                            <cell>gilt <italic>or</italic> gilded</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Gird</cell>
                            <cell>girt</cell>
                            <cell>girt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Give</cell>
                            <cell>gave</cell>
                            <cell>given</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Go</cell>
                            <cell>went</cell>
                            <cell>gone</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Grave</cell>
                            <cell>graved</cell>
                            <cell>graven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Grind</cell>
                            <cell>ground</cell>
                            <cell>ground</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="44"/>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Grow</cell>
                            <cell>grew</cell>
                            <cell>grown</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hang</cell>
                            <cell>hung <italic>or</italic> hanged</cell>
                            <cell>hung <italic>or</italic> hanged</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Have</cell>
                            <cell>had</cell>
                            <cell>had</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hear</cell>
                            <cell>heard</cell>
                            <cell>heard</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Help</cell>
                            <cell>helped</cell>
                            <cell>helped</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hew</cell>
                            <cell>hewed</cell>
                            <cell>hewn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hide</cell>
                            <cell>hid</cell>
                            <cell>hidden, <italic>or</italic> hid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hit</cell>
                            <cell>hit</cell>
                            <cell>hit</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hold</cell>
                            <cell>held</cell>
                            <cell>held <italic>or</italic> holden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Hurt</cell>
                            <cell>hurt</cell>
                            <cell>hurt</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Keep</cell>
                            <cell>kept</cell>
                            <cell>kept</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Knit</cell>
                            <cell>knit</cell>
                            <cell>knit <italic>or</italic> knitted</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Know</cell>
                            <cell>knew</cell>
                            <cell>known</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lade</cell>
                            <cell>laded</cell>
                            <cell>laden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lay</cell>
                            <cell>laid</cell>
                            <cell>laid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lead</cell>
                            <cell>led</cell>
                            <cell>led</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Leave</cell>
                            <cell>left</cell>
                            <cell>left</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lend</cell>
                            <cell>lent</cell>
                            <cell>lent</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Let</cell>
                            <cell>let</cell>
                            <cell>let</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lie</cell>
                            <cell>lay</cell>
                            <cell>lain</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Load</cell>
                            <cell>loaded</cell>
                            <cell>laden <italic>or</italic> loaded</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Lose</cell>
                            <cell>lost</cell>
                            <cell>lost</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Make</cell>
                            <cell>made</cell>
                            <cell>made</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Meet</cell>
                            <cell>met</cell>
                            <cell>met</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Mow</cell>
                            <cell>mowed</cell>
                            <cell>mown <italic>or</italic> mowed</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Pay</cell>
                            <cell>paid</cell>
                            <cell>paid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Put</cell>
                            <cell>put</cell>
                            <cell>put</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Read</cell>
                            <cell>read</cell>
                            <cell>read</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Reave</cell>
                            <cell>reft</cell>
                            <cell>reft <italic>or</italic> reaved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Rend </cell>
                            <cell>rent</cell>
                            <cell>rent</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Rid</cell>
                            <cell>rid</cell>
                            <cell>rid</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="45"/>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Ride</cell>
                            <cell>rode</cell>
                            <cell>rid, rode, <italic>or</italic> ridden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Ring</cell>
                            <cell>rung, <italic>or</italic> rang</cell>
                            <cell>rung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Rise</cell>
                            <cell>rose</cell>
                            <cell>risen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Rive</cell>
                            <cell>rived</cell>
                            <cell>riven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Run</cell>
                            <cell>ran</cell>
                            <cell>run</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Saw</cell>
                            <cell>sawed</cell>
                            <cell>sawn <italic>or</italic> sawed</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Say</cell>
                            <cell>said</cell>
                            <cell>said</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>See</cell>
                            <cell>saw</cell>
                            <cell>seen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Seek</cell>
                            <cell>sought</cell>
                            <cell>sought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sell</cell>
                            <cell>sold</cell>
                            <cell>sold</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Send</cell>
                            <cell>sent</cell>
                            <cell>sent</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Set</cell>
                            <cell>set</cell>
                            <cell>set</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sew</cell>
                            <cell>sewed</cell>
                            <cell>sewed <italic>or</italic> sewn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shake</cell>
                            <cell>shook</cell>
                            <cell>shook <italic>or</italic> shaken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shape</cell>
                            <cell>shaped</cell>
                            <cell>shaped, <italic>or</italic> shapen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shave</cell>
                            <cell>shaved</cell>
                            <cell>shaven <italic>or</italic> shaved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shear</cell>
                            <cell>sheared</cell>
                            <cell>shorn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shed</cell>
                            <cell>shed</cell>
                            <cell>shed</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shine</cell>
                            <cell>shone</cell>
                            <cell>shone</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Show</cell>
                            <cell>showed</cell>
                            <cell>shown</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shoe</cell>
                            <cell>shod</cell>
                            <cell>shod</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shoot</cell>
                            <cell>shot</cell>
                            <cell>shot</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shred</cell>
                            <cell>shred</cell>
                            <cell>shred</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shrink</cell>
                            <cell>shrunk <italic>or</italic> shrank</cell>
                            <cell>shrunk</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Shut</cell>
                            <cell>shut</cell>
                            <cell>shut</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sing</cell>
                            <cell>sung, <italic>or</italic> sang</cell>
                            <cell>sung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sink</cell>
                            <cell>sank <italic>or</italic> sunk</cell>
                            <cell>sunk</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sit</cell>
                            <cell>sat</cell>
                            <cell>sat</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="46"/>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Slay</cell>
                            <cell>Slew</cell>
                            <cell>slain</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sleep</cell>
                            <cell>slept</cell>
                            <cell>slept</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sling</cell>
                            <cell>slung</cell>
                            <cell>slung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Slide</cell>
                            <cell>slid</cell>
                            <cell>slid <italic>or</italic> slidden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Slit</cell>
                            <cell>slit</cell>
                            <cell>slit <italic>or</italic> slitted</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Slink</cell>
                            <cell>slunk</cell>
                            <cell>slunk</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Smite</cell>
                            <cell>smote</cell>
                            <cell>smitten</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sow</cell>
                            <cell>sowed</cell>
                            <cell>sown <italic>or</italic> sowed</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Speak</cell>
                            <cell>spake <italic>or</italic> spoke</cell>
                            <cell>spoken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Speed</cell>
                            <cell>sped</cell>
                            <cell>sped</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Spend</cell>
                            <cell>spent</cell>
                            <cell>spent</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Spill</cell>
                            <cell>spilt</cell>
                            <cell>spilt <italic>or</italic> spilled</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Spin</cell>
                            <cell>spun, <italic>or</italic> span</cell>
                            <cell>spun</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Spit</cell>
                            <cell>spit <italic>or</italic> spat</cell>
                            <cell>spit <italic>or</italic> spitten</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Split</cell>
                            <cell>split</cell>
                            <cell>split <italic>or</italic> splitted</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Spread</cell>
                            <cell>spread</cell>
                            <cell>spread</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Steal</cell>
                            <cell>stole</cell>
                            <cell>stolen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Stand</cell>
                            <cell>stood</cell>
                            <cell>stood</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Stick</cell>
                            <cell>stuck</cell>
                            <cell>stuck</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sting</cell>
                            <cell>stung</cell>
                            <cell>stung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Stride</cell>
                            <cell>strode <italic>or</italic> strid</cell>
                            <cell>stridden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Strike</cell>
                            <cell>struck</cell>
                            <cell>struck <italic>or</italic> stricken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>String</cell>
                            <cell>strung</cell>
                            <cell>strung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Strive</cell>
                            <cell>strove</cell>
                            <cell>striven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Swear</cell>
                            <cell>swore</cell>
                            <cell>sworn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Sweat</cell>
                            <cell>sweated <italic>or</italic> swet</cell>
                            <cell>sweated <italic>or</italic> swet</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Swell</cell>
                            <cell>swelled</cell>
                            <cell>swollen <italic>or</italic> swelled</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Swing</cell>
                            <cell>swung, <italic>or</italic> swang</cell>
                            <cell>swung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="47"/>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Swim</cell>
                            <cell>swam <italic>or</italic> swum</cell>
                            <cell>swum</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Take</cell>
                            <cell>took</cell>
                            <cell>taken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Teach</cell>
                            <cell>taught</cell>
                            <cell>taught</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Tear</cell>
                            <cell>tore</cell>
                            <cell>torn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Tell</cell>
                            <cell>told</cell>
                            <cell>told</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Think</cell>
                            <cell>thought</cell>
                            <cell>thought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Throw</cell>
                            <cell>threw</cell>
                            <cell>thrown</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Thrive</cell>
                            <cell>throve</cell>
                            <cell>throve <italic>or</italic> thriven</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Thrust</cell>
                            <cell>thrust</cell>
                            <cell>thrust</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Tread</cell>
                            <cell>trod</cell>
                            <cell>trod <italic>or</italic> trodden</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Wear</cell>
                            <cell>wore </cell>
                            <cell>worn</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Wax</cell>
                            <cell>waxed</cell>
                            <cell>waxen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Weave</cell>
                            <cell>wove</cell>
                            <cell>woven <italic>or</italic> weaved</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Weep</cell>
                            <cell>wept</cell>
                            <cell>wept</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Win</cell>
                            <cell>won</cell>
                            <cell>won</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Wind</cell>
                            <cell>wound</cell>
                            <cell>wound</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Work</cell>
                            <cell>worked <italic>or</italic> wrought</cell>
                            <cell>worked <italic>or</italic> wrought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Wring</cell>
                            <cell>wrung</cell>
                            <cell>wrung</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Write</cell>
                            <cell>wrote</cell>
                            <cell>written</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
                <paragraph>How can you distinguish whether a word be a substantive, an adjective, or a verb? <linebreak/>If the articles <italic>a</italic>, <italic>an</italic>, or <italic>the</italic> be prefixed to a word, and it makes sense of itself, it is a substantive; an adjective may be distinguished by its making sense when the word <italic>thing</italic> is subjoined to it; and the method of ascertaining a verb is, if it makes sense with the word <italic>to</italic> or any of the personal pronouns prefixed to it.</paragraph>                
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="48"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of the Adverb.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of the Adverb.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is an adverb? <linebreak/>A word added to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, to explain or qualify their signification; as I write <italic>correctly</italic>; a <italic>really</italic> virtuous woman, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are adverbs divided? <linebreak/>Generally into eleven classes; namely, of number, order, place, time, quantity, quality, doubt or contingency, affirmation, negation, interrogation, and comparison.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of number? <linebreak/>Once, twice, thrice.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of order? <linebreak/>First, secondly, &amp;c.; lastly, finally.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of place? <linebreak/>Here, there, where, hither, thither, whither, hence, thence, whence, and their compounds; with backward, downward, forward, homeward, upward, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of  time? <linebreak/>Now, to-day, yesterday, to-morrow, hereafter, henceforth, already, lately, instantly, often, seldom, again, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of quantity? <linebreak/>Much, little, enough, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the adverbs of quality. <linebreak/>Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, prudently, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of doubt or contingency <ed_note type="correction">coningency</ed_note>? <linebreak/>Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the affirmative adverbs? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="49"/>
                    Undoubtedly, truly, indeed, doubtless, really, surely, yea, yes, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the adverbs of negation. <linebreak/>No, not, nay, not at all, by no means, nowise.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention those of interrogation. <linebreak/>Why, wherefore, when, how, whether, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the adverbs of comparison? <linebreak/>More, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, exceedingly, almost, little, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Do adverbs admit of comparison? <linebreak/>Yes: those which express quality, as also a few others.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are adverbs compared? <linebreak/>Those ending in <italic>ly</italic> are compared by <italic>more</italic> and <italic>most</italic>; and monosyllables and dissyllables by <italic>er</italic> and <italic>est</italic>; as <italic>wisely</italic>, <italic>more wisely</italic>, <italic>most wisely</italic>; <italic>soon</italic>, <italic>sooner</italic>, <italic>soonest</italic>; <italic>often</italic>, <italic>oftener</italic>, <italic>oftenest</italic>; <italic>far</italic>, <italic>farther</italic>, <italic>farthest</italic>, (when applied to distance), and <italic>far</italic>, <italic>further</italic>, <italic>furthest</italic> (when applied to quantity or addition).</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Do not some adverbs form their comparison irregularly? <linebreak/>Yes:</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention them. <linebreak/><table cols="3" rows="5">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Positive</cell>
                            <cell>Comparative</cell>
                            <cell>Superlative</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Well</cell>
                            <cell>better</cell>
                            <cell>best</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Ill</cell>
                            <cell>worse</cell>
                            <cell>worst</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Little</cell>
                            <cell>less</cell>
                            <cell>least</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Much</cell>
                            <cell>more</cell>
                            <cell>most</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table></paragraph>
            </div1>
            <pagebreak page_no="50"/>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of the Preposition.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of the Preposition.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is a preposition? <linebreak/>A word which shows the relation which persons, objects, or things bear to one another; as, She is instructed <italic>by</italic> him.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention some of the principal prepositions. <linebreak/>Above, about, across, against, along, among, at, after, amidst, beneath, behind, between, besides, below, beyond, by, concerning, during, except, for, from, in, into, near, over, to, unto, through, towards, under, within, without, &amp;c.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of the Conjunction.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of the Conjunction.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is a conjunction? <linebreak/>A word which connects words and sentences together.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are conjunctions divided? <linebreak/>Into two kinds: <italic>copulative</italic> and <italic>disjunctive</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the copulative conjunctions? <linebreak/>And, if, for, that, both, because, since, therefore, wherefore, inasmuch, forasmuch, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which the disjunctive conjunctions? <linebreak/>But, or, not, either, neither, as, than, lest, except, though, although, yet, else, whereas, notwithstanding.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of the Interjection.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of the Interjection.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What is an interjection? <linebreak/>A word denoting any sudden affection or emotion of the mind; as <italic>Ah! the delusions <pagebreak page_no="51"/> of hope. O! the humiliation to which vice reduces us.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph>How are interjections divided? <linebreak/>Into those <italic>of joy</italic>, as, hey; <italic>of grief</italic>, as, ah, alas, alack, O, oh; <italic>of wonder</italic>, as, ha, strange, really, &amp;c.; <italic>of aversion</italic> or <italic>disgust</italic>, as, tush, pish, pshaw, fie, away, begone; <italic>of attention</italic>, as, hark, lo, behold; <italic>of silence</italic>, as, hush, hist, silence; <italic>of calling</italic>, as, O, halloo, soho; <italic>of addressing</italic> or <italic>salutation</italic>, as, welcome, hail, all hail; of <italic>exultation</italic>, as, huzza; of <italic>laughter</italic>, as, ha, ha, ha; of <italic>taking leave</italic>, as, adieu, farewell, good bye, &amp;c.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Syntax.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Syntax.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>What does Syntax teach? <linebreak/>1st. The concord or agreement of words in a sentence; 2dly, their government or construction; and 3dly, their proper arrangement or collocation.    </paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by concord? <linebreak/>The agreement which one word has with another in gender, number, case, person, mood, or tense.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What by government or construction? <linebreak/>That power or influence which one part of speech has over another, in directing its particular mood, tense, number, or case.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Which are the three great concords in all languages? <linebreak/>1st. Between the nominative case and the verb. 2dly. Between the substantive and the adjective. And 3dly. Between the antecedent and the relative.<folio folio_no="E2"/><pagebreak page_no="52"/></paragraph>
                <paragraph>How many may the rules made use of in English syntax for the concord and government of words, be considered? <linebreak/>Twenty-five.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the first rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>The verb must agree with the nominative case in number and person; as <italic>I learn</italic>, <italic>he reads</italic>, <italic>the boys play</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is meant by the verb agreeing with the nominative case in number and person? <linebreak/>Of whatever number and person the nominative case is, of the same number and person must the verb be. Thus, in the first example above mentioned, <italic>I learn</italic>, <italic>I</italic> is of the first person, as also of the singular number; therefore, according to the rule, the verb <italic>learn</italic> must also be of the first person and of the singular number. For this reason, the sentence would be ungrammatical; had it been <italic>I learns</italic>; because <italic>I</italic> is of the first person, and <italic>learns</italic> is a verb of the third person.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Is your brothers gone? <linebreak/>There remains little hopes of his recovery. <linebreak/>The scissars is lost. <linebreak/>He dare not do it. <linebreak/>There is two or three of them done. <linebreak/>In piety and virtue consist the happiness of man.  <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="53"/>You was told of it before. <linebreak/>In his failure was fulfilled all my prognostications. <linebreak/>One, added to nineteen, make twenty. <linebreak/>Here is likewise represented unto us the manifold blessings of a virtuous life. <linebreak/>Neither of these are the meaning of the author. <linebreak/>In his conduct a mixture of prudence and folly are conspicuous. <linebreak/>The same of his virtue and talents were widely diffused. <linebreak/>Nothing delight me so much as the works of nature. <linebreak/>Each of these words imply some object or pursuit relinquished. ―  <italic>Blairs's Belles Lettres.</italic> <linebreak/>Neither of them are remarkable for precision. ― <italic>Ibid.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. ― When two or more nouns or pronouns of different persons are the nominative case to the verb, the verb must agree with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the second rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>Every verb ought to have a nominative case, either expressed or understood; and therefore the sentence <italic>Who diggeth a pit for his neighbour, shall fall therein</italic>, is inaccurate, a nominative case being wanting to the verb <italic>shall fall</italic>. To be correct, the sentence should be, <italic>He who diggeth a pit for his neighbour, shall fall therein</italic>.</paragraph>
                <folio folio_no="E3"/><pagebreak page_no="54"/>
                <paragraph>Sometimes the relative pronoun <italic>who</italic>, is the nominative case to the verb; but when a relative intervenes between the nominative case and the verb, the relative is governed in the accusative case by the verb; as, <italic>He whom I love</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>I who he has injured. <linebreak/>The lady who I saw yesterday, is dead. <linebreak/>The man who I always respected, has deceived me. <linebreak/>He was surrounded by those who he could not trust. <linebreak/>Those, who concience and virtue support, may smile at the caprices of fortune.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the third rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>Two or more nouns or pronouns, connected together by a copulative conjunction, require a verb plural; as, <italic>Religion and virtue confer on the mind, principles of noble independence</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is incorrect in this sentence: "Humility and benevolence constitutes the essence of true religion." <linebreak/>The word <italic>constitutes</italic>; because, as <italic>humility</italic> and <italic>benevolence</italic> are the nominative case, the verb must be in the plural number: it should therefore have been <italic>constitute</italic>, instead of <italic>constitutes</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Idleness and ignorance is the parent of all vices. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="55"/>Your brother and sister is arrived. <linebreak/>What signifies his counsel and care. <linebreak/>The king, with the lords and commons, constitutes parliament? <linebreak/>Virtue, honour, nay, even self-interest, conspires to recommend the measure. <linebreak/>Much does human pride and self-complacency require correction.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the fourth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>Nouns or pronouns having a conjunction disjunctive occurring between them, require the verb to be in the singular number; as, <italic>Happiness or misery is in a great measure in our own hands</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Why is this sentence, "Ignorance or negligence have caused the mistake," ungrammatical? <linebreak/>Because, as by Rule I, the verb must agree with the nominative case in number and person, and as here only one of the words <italic>ignorance</italic> or <italic>negligence</italic>, is the nominative case to the verb; therefore the word <italic>have</italic> should be <italic>has</italic> according to the rule.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Neither friend nor foe have power to hurt me. <linebreak/>Death, or some worse misfortune, soon divide them.<linebreak/>Either his ingratitude or compassion were excited. <linebreak/>Man's happiness or misery are, in a great measure, in his own power. <linebreak/>Either he or she are to come. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="56"/>He knows not what spleen, languor, or listlessness are. ― <italic>Blair's Sermons</italic>. <linebreak/>Neither death nor torture were sufficient to subdue the minds of Cargill, and his intrepid followers. ― <italic>Fox's History of James II</italic>. <linebreak/>Magnus, with four thousand of his supposed accomplices, were put to death. ― <italic>Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. ― It is said by the generality of compilers of English Grammar, that "when singular pronouns of different persons separated by disjunctives, are nominatives to a verb, the the verb agrees with that person which is the nearest to it; as, <italic>Thou or I</italic> <small_caps>am</small_caps> <italic>greatly mistaken</italic>, &amp;c. The inaccuracy of this mode of expression is too evident to need any confutation. The correct method of expressing this sentence, is, <italic>Either you or I is greatly mistaken</italic>; that is, either of us is greatly mistaken. It must, however, be admitted, that when a disjunctive conjunction occurs between a singular noun or pronoun and a plural one, a difficulty presents itself which cannot be removed by supplying the ellipsis; and therefore these sentences, <italic>Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him, - Neither he nor they were present, - Neither your intention nor reasons have any influence</italic>, and the like, though ungrammatical in their construction, are in use among the best authors.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the fifth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="57"/>Nouns of multitude govern the verb, according to the unity or plurality of the idea which they are designed to express; as, <italic>The nation is powerful; the crowd is great; the people are clamorous; the meeting was large; the parliament is dissolved; the court is just broke up</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is incorrect in this sentence? "<italic>The peasantry goes barefoot.</italic>" <linebreak/>The word <italic>goes</italic>, which ought to be <italic>go</italic>; for as the word <italic>peasantry</italic> conveys the idea of plurality, that is, number, the verb should be in the plural number, in order to agree with it.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are the sentences, <italic>The House of Commons were adjourned</italic>; <italic>the army were dispersed</italic>; correct? <linebreak/>No: the words <italic>were</italic> in each sentence should be <italic>was</italic>; for as the words "<italic>the House of Commons</italic>" and "<italic>army</italic>" suggest to the mind unity, or the idea of the whole as one thing, the verb must be in the singular number, in order to agree with them.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>The committee have sat all night. <linebreak/>The people is not hearty in the cause. <linebreak/>The council were not unanimous. <linebreak/>The common people is but ill judges of real merit. <linebreak/>In the days of youth, the multitude eagerly pursues pleasure as its chief good. <linebreak/>The court have just broken up. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="58"/>The generality of my readers has approved of my proposal. <linebreak/>The parliament of Great Britain consist of three branches — king, lords, and commons. <linebreak/>The public were very dissatisfied with his ill-success. <linebreak/>The whole world believe it.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the sixth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>When an infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is the nominative case to the verb, the verb is put in the singular number; as, <italic>To do good is praiseworthy; the maxim of doing to all men as you would be done unto, is the foundation of all social duty</italic>. But when more than one part or member of a sentence is the nominative case to the verb, then the verb must be put in the plural number; as, <italic>To live righteously, and assist the needy, are Christian virtues</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the seventh rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>When one verb follows another, the latter is put in the infinitive mood; as, <italic>Cease to sin</italic>; <italic>learn to obey</italic>. But the verbs, <italic>bid</italic>, <italic>dare</italic>, <italic>hear</italic>, <italic>feel</italic>, <italic>let</italic>, <italic>make</italic>, <italic>need</italic>, <italic>see</italic>, &amp;c. require the verb following to be expressed without the sign of the infinitive mood; thus, <italic>I heard him say it; they saw him do it; you may hear her sing; he dare not say it</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the eighth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>When two substantives occur together, signifying different things, the former is put in <pagebreak page_no="59"/> the genitive or possessive case; as, <italic>Man's happiness</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 1st. ― When the genitive case plural of a noun ending with an s, is to be expressed, the apostrophic s is omitted; as, <italic>The mens' shares</italic>, <italic>the physicians' advice</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 2d. ― But when two or more nouns occur together, which are to be expressed in the genitive case, the apostrophic <italic>s</italic> is to be annexed to only the last; as, <italic>The man and woman's right</italic>; <italic>this was my father, mother, and brother's intention</italic>. Yet when any words intervene between the nouns, then each noun is to be expressed with the sign of the genitive case; as, <italic>They ate Mary's as well as Caroline's books</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Obs</italic>. 3d. ― When a word denoting the office or occupation of a person immediately follows a proper name, only the proper name is put in the genitive case; as, <italic>I bought it at Johnson's, the bookseller</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Obs</italic>. 4th. ― The pronominal genitive cases, <italic>ours, yours, hers, its, theirs</italic>, do not admit of the apostrophe.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the ninth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>When two or more substantives come together, the latter of which is descriptive of some quality or attribute of the former, they are put in the same case by apposition; as, <italic>Cicero, the orator</italic>; <italic>the princess Charlotte</italic>; <italic>riches, the incentives to vice</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="60"/>
                <paragraph><italic>Obs</italic>. — When two or more nouns occur together, the first of which is intended to designate some quality of the latter, they are united by the hyphen; as, <italic>The geography-master</italic>; <italic>a county-map</italic>; <italic>a fruit-tree</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the tenth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>Adjectives, and adjective pronouns, must agree in number with their substantives; as, <italic>Many men</italic>; <italic>each house</italic>; <italic>every man</italic>; <italic>either side</italic>; <italic>neither person</italic>; <italic>this man</italic>; <italic>these men</italic>; <italic>that woman</italic>; <italic>those women</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>The kings sat each upon their throne. <linebreak/>The parliament was very much on their guard. <linebreak/>Every one of the letters bear regular dates. <linebreak/>I have known him this ten years. <linebreak/>I have not seen him this two years.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><italic>Obs</italic>. — Adjectives are sometimes improperly used as adverbs, as are also adverbs as adjectives; as, <italic>Miserable poor</italic>, instead of <italic>miserably poor</italic>; <italic>in language suitably to the occasion</italic>, instead of <italic>in language suitable to the occasion</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Exceeding wise. <linebreak/>In a way agreeably to reason. <linebreak/>Act suitable to your station. <linebreak/>In a manner comformably to custom. <linebreak/>Extreme unwilling. <linebreak/>He lived in a manner agreeably to the dictates of reason and religion. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="61"/>It scarce admits of explanation. <linebreak/>He behaved conformable to your advice.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the eleventh rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>The relative agrees with the antecedent or noun to which it refers, in number, person, and gender; as, <italic>The man who speaks</italic>; <italic>the book which was bought</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 1st. - When the pronoun <italic>who</italic>, is the antecedent to the words <italic>child</italic> or <italic>children</italic>, or to irrational animals, the word <italic>which</italic> is substituted; as, <italic>The child which</italic>, &amp;c.; <italic>the animal which</italic>, &amp;c.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 2d. — A pronoun, or noun, used in answer to a question, must be of the same case as the pronoun which is used in asking the question; as, <italic>Who calls? I</italic>; <italic>Who saw it? She</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 3d. — When a conjunction copulative occurs between two or more nouns or pronouns, the pronoun referring to them is put in the plural number; but when a disjunctive conjunction so occurs, the pronoun referring must be put in the singular number; as, <italic>In regard to wealth and power, he holds them in contempt.</italic> <italic>We may see a metaphor <ed_note type="correction">mataphor</ed_note> or an allegory in a picture, as well as read it in a description.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Persons which talk much are not often very wise. <linebreak/>Our father which art in Heaven. <linebreak/><folio folio_no="F"/><pagebreak page_no="62"/>Can any one on their first intercourse with the world, be so secure that they shall not be deceived? <linebreak/>Who of the family called? <linebreak/>Send each of them in their turn. <linebreak/>He had one acquaintance which poisoned his principles. <linebreak/>Who tore the book? him. <linebreak/>Who is there? it is me. <linebreak/>Whom did you want? His sister and him. Who broke the glass? Not me. <linebreak/>A lampoon, or a satire, does not carry in them robbery or murder.	</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the twelfth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>Active verbs, as also their active participles, govern pronouns following them in the accusative case; as, <italic>I admire her</italic>; <italic>I am teaching them</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>He and they we know, but who art thou? <linebreak/>Who should I see the other day but my old friend. <linebreak/>She that is industrious, reward. <linebreak/>Who have you called? <linebreak/>By the character of those who you choose for your friends, your own is likely to be formed. <linebreak/>Who did he beat? <linebreak/>Who do you think we met. <linebreak/>He that is diligent, commend. <linebreak/>Who is he teaching? <linebreak/>Whoever he recommends, will be admitted.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the thirteenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="63"/>Neuter or intransitive <ed_note type="correction">intransive</ed_note> verbs neither govern cases, nor can they be compounded with the auxiliary verb <italic>to be</italic>; as, <italic>He has swerved from his promise</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>The storm is ceased. <linebreak/>Half the men are deserted. <linebreak/>He is entered into a new concern. <linebreak/>They are arrived. <linebreak/>He is departed. <linebreak/>When they were come. <linebreak/>Whose number was now amounted to above one thousand.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the fourteenth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>The verb <italic>to be</italic> through all its inflections, requires the same case after it as before it; as, <italic>It is I</italic>; <italic>I am he</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>I would act the same part if I were him. <linebreak/>Tell me which is him. <linebreak/>Was it him that spoke. <linebreak/>I thought it was him. <linebreak/>It can't be him. <linebreak/>It was me, and not them who wrote it. <linebreak/>It could not have been him. <linebreak/>Whom think ye that I am. <linebreak/>I saw him that was asked for.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — But when an accusative case precedes the infinitive mood <italic>to be</italic>, an accusative case must follow it; as, <italic>I understood it to be <folio folio_no="F2"/> <pagebreak page_no="64"/> him</italic>; <italic>I saw one whom I took to be him</italic>; <italic>whom do you think me to be</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the fifteenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>The auxiliary verbs <italic>to be</italic> and <italic>to have</italic> require the past or perfect participle after them; as, <italic>He has risen</italic>; <italic>I have drank</italic>; and when the participle ends in <italic>ed</italic> it is improper to change that termination into <italic>t</italic>; as, <italic>He has surpassed all his rivals</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>He would have spoke I am wanting <linebreak/>This is well wrote. <linebreak/>He has broke the window. <linebreak/>They were chose. <linebreak/>He has shook the phial. <linebreak/>Have you forgot your promise? <linebreak/>It was spoke extempore. <linebreak/>You have mistook my intention. <linebreak/>He has long bore your insolence. <linebreak/>The house is pleasantly situate. <linebreak/>She was much distrest at the news.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the sixteenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>When the article <italic>the</italic> precedes an active participle, the participle partakes of the nature of a substantive, and must be followed by the preposition <italic>of</italic>; or, in order that the sentence may be correct, both the article and preposition must be omitted: as, <italic>He spends his whole life in the doing of good</italic>; or <italic>he spends his whole life in doing good</italic>; instead of <italic>he spends his whole life in the doing good</italic>, or, <italic>he spends his whole life in doing of good</italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="65"/>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>He was sent to prepare the way by the preaching repentance. <linebreak/>Defending of a bad cause is as disgraceful as the cause itself. <linebreak/>In forming of his opinion, he was guided by circumstances. <linebreak/>Old medals for the illustrating history, are like maps for explaining of geography. <linebreak/>From calling of names, he proceeded to blows. <linebreak/>The wonderful success of the gospel, and universal spreading of it, had been long foretold. <linebreak/>He endeavoured to avoid the expressing himself too severely.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — Of such sentences as these, — <italic>much depends on your brother's answering of the letter</italic>, — <italic>much depends on their observing of this rule</italic>, — or, <italic>the minister's supporting him secured his election</italic>, — the phraseology should be altered by substituting, in the place of the participle, a noun of the same import. Thus, <italic>much depends on your brother's answer to this letter</italic>; <italic>much depends on their observance of this rule</italic>; <italic>the minister’s support secured his election</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the seventeenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>The moods, tenses, and voices of verbs must correspond with the sense of the idea to be expressed ; and, in point of time, must bear relation to the other verbs in the sentence; <folio folio_no="F3"/> <pagebreak page_no="66"/> as, <italic>I intended to write to you yesterday</italic>, instead of <italic>I intended to have written to you yesterday</italic>; <italic>I expected to find him in health</italic>, instead of <italic>I expected to have found him in health</italic>. </paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>I expected to have heard from my brother to-day. <linebreak/>I remember the family more than twenty years. <linebreak/>It is a year since I have seen him. <linebreak/>I feared, that I should not have done it, before you called. <linebreak/>On Saturday last I was at Hampstead, and have seen your brother. <linebreak/>I had rather walk than ride. <linebreak/>I wished to have interposed my authority. <linebreak/>What do you want? That I might be permitted to speak. <linebreak/>He has done his duty, as he ought to have done it. <linebreak/>Lodgings to let. <linebreak/>He has a horse to sell. <linebreak/>At Easter last I was in your brother's service two years. <linebreak/>On Christmas next I shall be occupier of this farm two years. <linebreak/>Before I come to you, I called on your brother. <linebreak/>It was a maxim with Cæsar, that we ought to reckon that we had done nothing, so long as any thing remained to be done.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the eighteenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="67"/>Prepositions govern the accusative case of the pronouns; as, <italic>With me</italic>; <italic>to him</italic>; <italic>for whom</italic>; and they ought immediately to precede the word which they govern; as, <italic>To whom do you speak?</italic> not <italic>Whom do you speak to?</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is wrong in these sentences — <italic>Who do you ask for?</italic> <italic>Who do you speak to?</italic> <linebreak/>First, the pronoun, <italic>who</italic>, should be in the accusative case, being governed by the prepositions <italic>for</italic> and <italic>to</italic>; and secondly, those prepositions should immediately precede the words which they govern.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Who do you ask for? <linebreak/>Who do you speak to? <linebreak/>To who will he give it? <linebreak/>Who can they trust to besides me? <linebreak/>It was given to him and I. <linebreak/>Who do you speak of? <linebreak/>He abuses whoever he meets? <linebreak/>Who do you think I met? <linebreak/>Who do you think I saw? <linebreak/>I cannot tell who it belongs to. <linebreak/>Every man must answer for his-self. <linebreak/>Does the fellow know who he speaks to? <linebreak/>Do you know who this hat belongs to? <linebreak/>Associate not with those who none speak well of. <linebreak/>The men of theirselves are incapable of the task.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 1st. — The preposition <italic>to</italic> is generally omitted before the pronoun after the verbs <italic>to give</italic>, <italic>to show</italic>, <italic>to bring</italic>, <italic>to fetch</italic>, <italic>to call</italic>, <italic>to <pagebreak page_no="68"/> ask</italic>, <italic>to address</italic>, &amp;c. as, <italic>Give me the book</italic>; <italic>show him the picture</italic>; <italic>bring me a glass</italic>; <italic>fetch me some bread</italic>; <italic>call him</italic>; <italic>ask her</italic>; <italic>address him</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 2d. — Prepositions are used according to the idiom of the language, or of the Latin prepositions of which words are compounded; as, <italic>He went to York</italic>, not <italic>he went for York</italic>; <italic>I cannot reconcile it with experience</italic>; <italic>averse from doing it</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 3d. — The preposition and the noun or pronoun which it governs, should never be separated, in order to connect different prepositions with the same noun or pronoun, but the noun should be placed immediately after the first preposition, and a pronoun after the second; as, <italic>I wrote to your brother, and cautioned him</italic>, instead of <italic>I wrote to, and cautioned your brother</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the nineteenth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>Adverbs are placed immediately before adjectives, after verbs, or between the auxiliary and the verb; as, <italic>This animal is very fierce</italic>; <italic>he learns assiduously</italic>; <italic>she was extremely beloved</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — But the adverb may be placed before the verb, and frequently with much effect; as, <italic>If thou art still innocent, anxiously beware of temptation</italic>. - When two auxiliaries occur, it may sometimes be placed between them, and sometimes after them; as, <italic>He has generally been reckoned studious</italic>; <italic>these rules will be clearly understood, after they have <pagebreak page_no="69"/> been diligently studied</italic> Sometimes it follows the noun; as <italic>He induced them to carry their opposition farther</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>We always find them ready. <linebreak/>He is not agreeable always equally. <linebreak/>I shall only speak of his undutifulness. <linebreak/>He is blessed naturally with a good memory. We find him at home seldom. <linebreak/>We find her from home always. <linebreak/>It was not understood well. <linebreak/>Prophecies which have remarkably been fulfilled. <linebreak/>These rules will clearly be understood, after they have been studied diligently.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the twentieth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>Conjunctions, whether copulative or disjunctive, connect like moods and tenses of verbs, as also like cases of nouns and pronouns; as, <italic>We went and returned on the same day</italic>; <italic>you taught him and me</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is incorrect in this sentence — <italic>Your brother and him are tolerable grammarians</italic>. <linebreak/>The word <italic>him</italic> is in the wrong case; for the word <italic>brother</italic> being in the nominative case, the word <italic>him</italic> should also be in the same case, according to the rule.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>My sister and her were invited. <linebreak/>It belongs either to him or I. <linebreak/>Let you and I do it. <linebreak/>The parliament has addressed the king, and was prorogued. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="70"/>To profess virtue, yet getting drunk every day, marks gross inconsistency. <linebreak/>We often overlook the blessings which we possess, and are coveting those which are out of our reach. <linebreak/>To insult misfortune, is ungenerous; but wanting the means of relieving it, is no disgrace. <linebreak/>If he understands the subject, and attend to it industriously, he can scarcely fail of success.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 1st. — When moods and tenses of verbs and cases of pronouns are connected together by conjunctions, and the sense of the expression requires the moods, tenses, or cases to be different, the nominative must be expressed before the mood, tense, or case so differing; as <italic>She was proud, though she is now humble</italic>; <italic>the world begins to recede, and it will soon disappear</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. 2d. — When the conjunctions <italic>neither</italic> and <italic>either</italic> are made use of, their corresponding conjunctions must attend them; as <italic>Neither he nor I can tell</italic>; <italic>I will either call or send</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>I shall do neither one or the other. <linebreak/>Neither despise age or honesty. <linebreak/>We can’t attend to one or the other. <linebreak/>He will neither do it himself, or suffer any one else to do it. </paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the twenty-first rule of Syntax? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="71"/>The conjunctions <italic>if</italic>, <italic>though</italic>, <italic>but</italic>, <italic>yet</italic>, <italic>unless</italic>, <italic>except</italic>, <italic>whether</italic>, <italic>lest</italic>, and <italic>that</italic>, when the sense in which the verb is used, implies a doubt or supposition, govern the verb in the subjunctive mood; but when the sense, in which the verb is to be used, implies no doubt, but is a positive affirmation, then the indicative mood is used after them: as, <italic>Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him</italic>; <italic>though he is poor, he is contented</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>Unless it rains, he will come. <linebreak/>If he is but discreet, he will succeed. <linebreak/>Though he submit, he is not convinced. <linebreak/>Despise not poverty, lest it becomes your own condition. <linebreak/>Unless he acts prudently, he will not attain his end. <linebreak/>Though he be rich, yet he is unhappy. <linebreak/>If he succeeds, he means to retire. <linebreak/>He will maintain his principles, though power threaten him. <linebreak/>If he think as he speaks, he may safely be trusted. <linebreak/>He checked you that you should not presume. <linebreak/>I will go, though I know that death be certain. <linebreak/>I will go, though I am uncertain what fate awaits me.</paragraph>
                <paragraph><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. — After verbs <italic>of wishing</italic> the conjunctive form of the verb is used; as, <italic>I wish that he were come</italic>. So, also, such expressions as <pagebreak page_no="72"/> this "<italic>Were there no difference, there would be no choice</italic>," are in use amongst the best writers.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the twenty-second rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>The interjections <italic>O!</italic> <italic>Oh!</italic> <italic>Ah!</italic> govern the accusative of a pronoun in the first person; as <italic>Oh me!</italic> <italic>Ah me!</italic> but the nominative of a pronoun in the second person; as <italic>O thou deceiver!</italic> <italic>Oh ye hypocrites!</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the twenty-third rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative; as, <italic>I have not had no trouble</italic>; that is <italic>I have had trouble</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>I have taken care that none shall receive no injury. <linebreak/>I cannot by no means assent to it. <linebreak/>I never said so, nor do not now. <linebreak/>He has eaten no bread, nor drank no water, during this week. <linebreak/>Nor is danger apprehended in such a government, no more than we commonly apprehend danger from thunder or earthquakes.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Mention the twenty-fourth rule of Syntax. <linebreak/>All the parts of a sentence should correspond with each other, and have a common government, or bear a similarity of construction. Therefore the following sentence is inaccurate. <italic>The reward which was his due, has already, or will hereafter be given to him</italic>; for the words <italic>has already</italic> or <italic>will hereafter</italic>, cannot have a common regimen: it should be, <italic>The reward which was his due has already been, or will hereafter be given to him</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/>He was guided by interests always different, sometimes contrary to those of the community. <linebreak/>It is my wish to make this grammar practical, rather than speculating, and useful rather than full of pedantry. <linebreak/>Never was man so teased, or suffered half the uneasiness, as have done this evening. <linebreak/>I shall do all I can, to persuade others to take the same measures for their cure as I have. <linebreak/>Neither has he, nor any other persons, suspected such an event. <linebreak/>Several alterations and additions have been made to the work. <linebreak/>Whether he be present or no, I shall mention the matter. <linebreak/>He was more bold and active, but not so prudent as his companion.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the twenty-fifth rule of Syntax? <linebreak/>When the conjunctions <italic>than</italic> and <italic>as</italic> are used for the purpose of comparison the same case follows as preceded them; as <italic>He is older than I</italic>; which construction, by supplying the elliptic words not expressed, appears correct; that is, <italic>he is older than I am</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Correct the following sentences: <linebreak/><folio folio_no="G"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="74"/>
                    He can read as well as her. <linebreak/>Do you think him taller than I. <linebreak/>He is more injured by your conduct than us. <linebreak/>It was well expressed by Plato, but more elegantly by Solomon than he. <linebreak/>The affair requires a more active person than him. <linebreak/>You are not so weak as him. <linebreak/>He is more cunning than us. <linebreak/>It was not the work of so eminent an author as him, to whom it was first imputed. <linebreak/>They are much greater gainers than us by this affair. <linebreak/>There is but one to blame, and that is me. <linebreak/>He got a richer wife that her he missed.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Parsing.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Parsing.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>As soon as the learner is acquainted with the different parts of speech, and the rules for forming them into sentences, he should be taught the analysing of a sentence into its component parts, and exercised in all its grammatical circumstances. This process is called <small_caps>Parsing</small_caps>; which teaches the nature, concord and government of the various parts of a sentence with respect to each other. Parsing is divided into two heads: 1st, <italic>Etymological</italic>, or <italic>Simple Parsing</italic>, and 2dly, <italic>Syntactical</italic>, or <italic>Complex Parsing</italic>. In Etymological, or Simple Parsing, the part of speech is merely described, with its circumstances of person, number, gender, case, comparison, voice, mood, or tense; but in <pagebreak page_no="75"/> Syntactical, or Complex Parsing, the part of speech is described, with all these circumstances, together with their concord and government. To these two methods may be added that of distinguishing the <italic>parts of speech only</italic>; a plan proper to be adopted with learners in their first attempts at <small_caps>Parsing</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                <div2>
                <heading level="3"><italic>Rules necessary to be learned before the Pupil begins to parse.</italic></heading>
                    <paragraph>1st. If the part of speech be an <italic>article</italic>, — observe whether it is definite or indefinite.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>2dly. In a <italic>noun</italic>, — observe its <italic>gender</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, and <italic>case</italic>; if the nominative case, find the verb with which it agrees; if the accusative, find the verb by which it is governed. </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>3dly. If an <italic>adjective</italic>, — observe its <italic>degree</italic>, and find the <italic>noun the quality of which it expresses</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>4thly. If a <italic>pronoun</italic>, — observe for <italic>what noun it stands</italic>, as also its <italic>person</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, <italic>gender</italic>, and <italic>case</italic>; if of the nominative case, find to <italic>what noun it refers</italic>; if of the accusative, find by <italic>what word it is governed</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>5thly. If a <italic>relative</italic>, — observe its <italic>antecedent</italic>, as also its <italic>person</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, <italic>gender</italic>, and <italic>case</italic>; if of the nominative case, find <italic>the noun to which it refers</italic>; if of the accusative, find <italic>by what word it is governed</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>6thly. If a <italic>verb</italic>, — observe its <italic>voice</italic>, <italic>mood</italic>, <italic>tense</italic>, <italic>number</italic>, and <italic>person</italic>; as also <italic>its nominative case</italic>: if of the active voice, observe what word it governs.</paragraph>
                    <folio folio_no="G2"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="76"/>
                    <paragraph>7thly. If an <italic>adverb</italic>, — observe what <italic>word it affects</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>8thly. If a <italic>preposition</italic>, — observe what <italic>noun</italic> or <italic>pronoun it governs</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>9thly. If a <italic>conjunction</italic>, — observe what <italic>words, members of a sentence, or sentences</italic> it connects.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>l0thly. If an <italic>interjection</italic>, — observe what it expresses.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="3"><italic>Also before the Pupil begins to parse syntactically, he should commit to memory the following rules:</italic></heading>
                    <paragraph>1st. Every nominative case must have a verb, either expressed or understood.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>2dly. Every verb must have a nominative case, either expressed or understood.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>3dly. Every relative must have an antecedent, either expressed or understood.</paragraph>
                </div2>                
                <div2>
                    <heading level="3"><italic>Parsing-Table of Questions.</italic></heading>
                    <paragraph>What part of speech? If a <italic>noun</italic>, <italic>pronoun</italic>, &amp;c. How do you know it to be so?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If an <italic>article</italic>. Of what kind? If <italic>definite or indefinite</italic>. Why?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If a <italic>noun</italic>. Of what kind, common or proper? Of what number? Decline it. Of what gender? Of what case? Why?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If an <italic>adjective</italic>. Of what degree of comparison? Compare it. With what dees it agree?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If a <italic>pronoun</italic>. Of what kind? Decline it. Of what person, gender, number, and case? Why? What is its antecedent?</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="77"/>
                    <paragraph>If a <italic>verb</italic>? Of what kind? Of what voice, mood, tense, number, and person? Form it. Conjugate it. With what does it agree, or what is its nominative case? What does it govern?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If an <italic>adverb</italic>. Of what kind? What word does it affect or modify?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If a <italic>preposition</italic>. What word does it govern?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If a <italic>conjunction</italic>. What words, members of a sentence, or sentences does it connect? Why does it govern the subjunctive mood?</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>If an <italic>interjection</italic>. What does it express? Does the nominative or accusative case follow it?</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="3"><small_caps>A Specimen of Parsing, Distinguishing the Parts of Speech only.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>Virtue ennobles us. <linebreak/><italic>Virtue</italic>, a noun. <italic>Ennobles</italic>, a verb. <italic>Us</italic>, a personal pronoun.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph type="example">
                        <small_caps>Examples.</small_caps> <linebreak/>1. Hope animates us. <linebreak/>2. Contentment is true happiness. <linebreak/>3. Vice produces misery. <linebreak/>4. The man is happy who lives wisely.</paragraph>
                </div2>                
                <div2>
                    <heading level="3">A Specimen of Etymological, or Simple Parsing.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Vice degrades us. <linebreak/><italic>Vice</italic> is a substantive common, of the neuter gender, singular number, and nominative <folio folio_no="E3"/> <pagebreak page_no="78"/> case. (<italic>Decline it</italic>.) <italic>Degrades</italic> is a regular verb, of the active voice, indicative mood, present tense, and third person singular. (Form it. <italic>Degrade, degraded, degraded</italic><footnote indicator="Asterisk"><small_caps>Obs</small_caps>. When the pupil is desired to form or decline the verb, he ought to repeat only the <italic>verb itself</italic>, its <italic>perfect</italic> or <italic>past tense</italic>, and its <italic>perfect</italic> or <italic>past participle</italic>; as, <italic>love, loved, loved</italic>; <italic>write, wrote, written</italic>. But should he be desired to conjugate the verb, he must then carry it through all the moods and tenses.</footnote>.) <italic>Us</italic> is a personal pronoun, of the first person, plural number, and accusative case.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph type="example"><small_caps>Examples.</small_caps> <linebreak/>1. The love of learning is the ornament of a good child. <linebreak/>2. The precepts of wisdom are the good child's delight. <linebreak/>3. Dissimulation in youth is the forerunner of perfidy in old age. <linebreak/>4. Piety and virtue are particularly graceful and becoming in youth.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="3"><small_caps>A Specimen of Syntactical, or Complex Parsing.</small_caps></heading>
                    <paragraph>Idleness and ignorance are the parents of many vices.  <linebreak/><italic>Idleness</italic> is a substantive common of the neuter gender, singular number, and one of the nominative cases to the verb <italic>are</italic>. <italic>And</italic> <pagebreak page_no="79"/> is a copulative conjunction uniting the substantive <italic>ignorance</italic> with <italic>idleness</italic>, in the same gender, number, and case, by rule the twentieth of Syntax. <italic>Ignorance</italic> is a substantive common, of the neuter gender, singular number, and is the other nominative case to the verb <italic>are</italic>. <italic>Are</italic> is an irregular neuter verb of the indicative mood, present tense, plural number, and first person, and agrees with its nominative cases <italic>idleness</italic> and <italic>ignorance</italic> in number and person, according to the first rule of Syntax. (<italic>Decline it.</italic> <italic>Am, was, been</italic>, <italic>Now conjugate it.</italic>) <italic>The</italic> a definite article. <italic>Parents</italic> a substantive, plural number, nominative case, according to the 14th rule of Syntax. (<italic>Decline it.</italic>) Of a preposition, and the sign of the genitive case of the word <italic>vices</italic>. <italic>Many</italic> an adjective of the positive degree; and agreeing with its substantive <italic>vices</italic> in gender, number, and person. (<italic>Compare it.</italic> <italic>Much or many, more, most.</italic>) <italic>Vices</italic> a substantive common, of the neuter gender, plural number, and genitive case, being governed by the word <italic>Parents</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph type="example"><small_caps>Examples.</small_caps> <linebreak/>1. A peaceful mind is virtue's reward. <linebreak/>2. Wisdom and virtue ennoble us. Vice and folly debase us. <linebreak/>3. Man's happiness or misery is, in a great measure, put into his own hands. <linebreak/>4. Religion and virtue, our best support and highest interest, confer on the mind principles of noble independence. <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="80"/>5. A contented mind and a good conscience, will make a man happy in all conditions. <linebreak/>6. Old age will prove a joyless and dreary season, if we arrive at it with an unimproved or corrupted mind.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>***<ed_note type="note">Asterism upside down.</ed_note> As <italic>Prosody</italic> and <italic>Punctuation</italic> do not properly fall within the acceptation of the word <italic>Grammar</italic>, but are referrible to the term <italic>Composition</italic>, they will be treated of in the "<small_caps>Grammar of Composition and Rhetoric</small_caps>," which the Author of the <small_caps>Catechism of English Grammar</small_caps> is preparing for publication.</paragraph>
                </div2>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Directions Respecting the Use of Capital Letters.">
                <heading level="1"><small_caps>Directions Respecting the Use of Capital Letters.</small_caps></heading>
                <paragraph>The first word of every book, chapter, writing, letter, note, or paragraph should begin with a capital letter. So should the first word after every period or full stop, and the first word of every line of poetry. So, the appellations or epithets of the Deity, and proper names of all kinds. So, all the adjectives expressive of national qualities; as Grecian, Roman, English, French, &amp;c. So, the first word of all quotations, as also all emphatical words, or such as are the subject of the discourse. And, lastly, the titles of books and persons, as also the pronoun I and the interjection <small_caps>O</small_caps>.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Of Punctuation.">
                <ed_note type="addition"><heading level="1"><small_caps>Of Punctuation.</small_caps></heading></ed_note>
                <paragraph>What is meant by <italic>Punctuation</italic>?  <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="81"/>The art of dividing composition in sentences, or parts of sentences, by points and stops.</paragraph>                
                <paragraph>Mention the points or stops used in composition. <linebreak/>The comma (,) — the semicolon (;) — the colon (:) — the period or full stop (.) — the notes of interrogation (?) — of admiration or exclamation (!)</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are no other points or signs used in composition? <linebreak/>Yes: the dash (—) the apostrophe (') — the caret (^) — the hyphen (-) — inverted commas, ("") the parenthesis ( ) — the acute accent (´) the grave accent (` or ^) — the long accent (―) the short accent (˘) — and the diæresis (¨).</paragraph>
                <paragraph>Are there no marks or signs in use? <linebreak/>Yes: the paragraph (¶) — the section (§) — crotchets and brackets ([]) — the index (☞) the brace (}) — the ellipsis (— —) the asterisk (*) — the obelisk (†) — and the parallel (||) —.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>comma</italic>? <linebreak/>To separate those parts of sentences which require a pause between them.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What of the <italic>semicolon</italic>? <linebreak/>To divide a compound sentence into two or more parts.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What of the <italic>colon</italic>? <linebreak/>To indicate a connection to sense between two or more parts of a sentence, more independent of each other than such as are separated by a semicolon.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the <italic>period</italic> used? <linebreak/><pagebreak page_no="82"/>When the sense of a sentence is completed.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the note of <italic>interrogation</italic> used? <linebreak/>When a question is asked.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the note of <italic>admiration</italic> or <italic>exclamation</italic>? <linebreak/>To express any sudden emotion or passion.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>parenthesis</italic>? <linebreak/>To introduce into the body of a sentence some remark or information illustrative of the subject.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the dash? <linebreak/>To express a significant pause, or to separate an enumeration of facts. </paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>apostrophe</italic>? <linebreak/>To abbreviate words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What of the <italic>caret</italic>? <linebreak/>To indicate an omission of a word or words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>hyphen</italic>? <linebreak/>To connect compound words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What do the <italic>inverted commas</italic> imply? <linebreak/>A quotation or transcription from some work.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>accents</italic>? <linebreak/>To mark the measure of syllables; and the <italic>diæresis</italic> is used to show, that two vowels coming together do not form a diphthong, but are two syllables.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What does the <italic>paragraph</italic> denote? <linebreak/>The beginning of a new subject.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What the <italic>section</italic>? <linebreak/>It is used to divide a discourse or chapter into less parts or portions.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="83"/>
                <paragraph>What purpose do the <italic>crotchets</italic> or <italic>brackets</italic> serve? <linebreak/>To inclose some explanation, or deficiency, or to rectify some mistake.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>index</italic>? <linebreak/>To point out something worthy of remark or attention.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>brace</italic>? <linebreak/>To connect a triplet or three lines together, or to connect a number of words with one common term.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>When is the <italic>ellipsis</italic> used? <linebreak/>When some letters in a word, or some words in a sentence, are suppressed.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>What is the use of the <italic>asterisk</italic>, the <italic>obelisk</italic>, and the <italic>parallel</italic>? <linebreak/>As references to the margin or bottom of the page.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Solecisms or Vulgar or Erroneous Modes of Expression.">
                <heading level="1"><judgement addressee_implicit="society" type="correction" tedency="negative"><small_caps>Solecisms or Vulgar or Erroneous Modes of Expression.</small_caps></judgement></heading>
                <paragraph><table cols="2" rows="89">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Erroneous Phrases</cell>
                            <cell>Corrected</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They two books</cell>
                            <cell>Those two books</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bring me them things</cell>
                            <cell>Bring me those things</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Take this here pen</cell>
                            <cell>Take this pen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Bring that there book</cell>
                            <cell>Bring that book</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Says I</cell>
                            <cell>Said I, <italic>or</italic> I said</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thinks I</cell>
                            <cell>Thought I, <italic>or</italic> I thought</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Look in the box</cell>
                            <cell>Look into the box</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Break it in pieces</cell>
                            <cell>Break it into pieces</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Put it in your pocket</cell>
                            <cell>Put it into your pocket</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>It is equally the same</cell>
                            <cell>It is the same</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Yes sure, or yes surely</cell>
                            <cell>Yes</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>From where, <italic>or</italic> from whence</cell>
                            <cell>Whence</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>From here, or from hence</cell>
                            <cell>Hence</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>From there, or from thence</cell>
                            <cell>Thence</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="84"/>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>We seldom or ever want it</cell>
                            <cell>We seldom or never (<italic>or</italic> we seldom if ever) want it.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Whether they will or no</cell>
                            <cell>Whether they will or not</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>The old original house of call</cell>
                            <cell>The original house of call</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>It happened sooner than they thought for</cell>
                            <cell>It happened sooner than they expected</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Look if the sun shines</cell>
                            <cell>Look whether the sun shines</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Inquire if he called</cell>
                            <cell>Inquire whether he called</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>His character is undeniable</cell>
                            <cell>His character is unexceptionable</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Not but what it is true</cell>
                            <cell>Not but that it is true</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>She was to call as this day</cell>
                            <cell>She was to call this day</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>The two first houses</cell>
                            <cell>The first two houses</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I cannot distinguish them from another</cell>
                            <cell>I cannot distinguish them one from the other</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I had rather send for it</cell>
                            <cell>I would rather send for it</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Come here</cell>
                            <cell>Come hither</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Where are you going</cell>
                            <cell>Whither are you going</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He is going there</cell>
                            <cell>He is going thither</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>While he was a walking</cell>
                            <cell>While he was walking</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He is gone to lay down</cell>
                            <cell>He is gone to lie down</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I laid down for a few moments</cell>
                            <cell>I lay down for a few moments</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Lie it down directly</cell>
                            <cell>Lay it down directly</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They go to the theatre for to be seen</cell>
                            <cell>They go to the theatre to be seen</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Who finds you in money</cell>
                            <cell>Who finds you money</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>On seeing him, she flew away</cell>
                            <cell>On seeing him, she fled away</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>On seeing him she always flies away</cell>
                            <cell>On seeing him she always flees away</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>The birds fled on seeing us</cell>
                            <cell>The birds flew on seeing us</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Of consequence</cell>
                            <cell>Consequently</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>It is apparent</cell>
                            <cell>It is obvious</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He adduced a proof</cell>
                            <cell>He produced a proof</cell>
                        </row>
                        <pagebreak page_no="85"/>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Set down for a moment</cell>
                            <cell>Sit down for a moment</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Sit yourself down</cell>
                            <cell>Set yourself down</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He was setting upon the stile</cell>
                            <cell>He was sitting upon the stile</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They had scarcely sat themselves down</cell>
                            <cell>They had scarcely set themselves down</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I have been all over the town</cell>
                            <cell>I have been over all the town</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>About a month back</cell>
                            <cell>About a month ago</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They have got some</cell>
                            <cell>They have some</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Our mutual friend</cell>
                            <cell>Our common friend</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Such another occurrence</cell>
                            <cell>Another such occurrence</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I propose to do it</cell>
                            <cell>I purpose to do it</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>It is at your disposition</cell>
                            <cell>It is at your disposal</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Formed out of the dust of the earth</cell>
                            <cell>Formed of the dust of the earth</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He learnt us to write</cell>
                            <cell>He taught us to write</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He had no sooner spoken but he retired</cell>
                            <cell>He had no sooner spoken than he retired</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Frequent opportunity occurs of doing good</cell>
                            <cell>Frequent opportunities occur of doing good</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They began for to <ed_note type="omission">con-</ed_note> consider the matter</cell>
                            <cell>They began to consider the matter</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>They commanded him for to come</cell>
                            <cell>They commanded him to come</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>You are mistaken</cell>
                            <cell>You mistake</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I found I was mistaken</cell>
                            <cell>I found I had mistaken</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Be that as it will</cell>
                            <cell>Be that as it may</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>He retreated back</cell>
                            <cell>He retreated</cell>