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Meiklejohn: Easy English Grammar for Beginners, Vol. I (1862)

Last Change: 28.10.2015

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<grammar_book>
    <grammar_header>
        <gr_id>0</gr_id>
        <gr_author_id>0</gr_author_id>
        <gr_last_edit by="Kleiber, Ingo">28.10.2015</gr_last_edit>
        <gr_author>Meiklejohn, John Miller Dow</gr_author>
        <gr_author_gender>Male</gr_author_gender>
        <gr_education/>
        <gr_occupation/>
        <gr_title>An Easy English Grammar For Beginners; Being a Plain Doctrine of Words and
            Sentences. Book the First. Of Words and Their Changes.</gr_title>
        <gr_short_title>An Easy English Grammar for Beginners</gr_short_title>
        <gr_title_add>Here a little, and there a little.</gr_title_add>
        <gr_publisher>Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Hall Court</gr_publisher>
        <gr_place_of_publication>London</gr_place_of_publication>
        <gr_year_publication>1862</gr_year_publication>
        <gr_year_edition>1862</gr_year_edition>
        <gr_no_edition>1</gr_no_edition>
        <gr_no_of_pages/>
        <gr_no_of_words/>
        <gr_language>English</gr_language>
        <gr_variety>British English</gr_variety>
        <gr_type>Teaching Grammar</gr_type>
        <gr_form>Textbook</gr_form>
        <gr_target_institution>School</gr_target_institution>
        <gr_target_audience>Beginner</gr_target_audience>
        <gr_target_audience_author>Beginners</gr_target_audience_author>
        <gr_tags/>
    </grammar_header>
    <grammar_text>
        <div0 description="front_matter">
            <div1 description="advertisment" name="The Herbert Series of Short School Books">
                <paragraph> ALEXANDER IRELAND &amp; CO., Pall Mall Court, Manchester, propose to
                    issue, at intervals, a SERIES OF SCHOOL BOOKS, Under the above
                    title.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> There is one standing objection against most existing school books, and
                    that is their high price, - a consequence of their large size. A boy has put
                    into his hand a school book which costs from two to ten shillings, and which he
                    cannot work through within three or four years. Long before the end of this time
                    the boy has become disgusted with the book - and, perhaps, with the subject
                    also. He abhors the very sight of its well-thumbed pages. He has a strong
                    feeling, too, that he has not been making progress in all these years. If the
                    very same book had been given him in portions, each of which might have been
                    fully conquered and made part of his mental stock in half a year, the pupil
                    would have had a strong feeling of progress and mental power, and would have
                    hailed his arrival at a new part of the subject with keen pleasure.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> It is on this principle that the present series is to be constructed.
                    Each book will contain only such a quantity of matter as it is believed a boy of
                    average abilities may, with average application, fully master in the course of
                    half a year. Each book will be carefully graduated into its successor; and the
                    highest possible degree of clearness and completeness of statement will be aimed
                    at. If, then, a boy has thoroughly got up one book, he will naturally be
                    promoted to the next book on that subject in the series; and this change will
                    form at once a mark of past progress and an incitement to new exertion. If he
                    has not, he must continue to work in that book until he is able to approach the
                    following one. Thus a boy who has passed through his half-yearly course with
                    moderate success will be presented, at the opening of a new half, with a fresh
                    set of books; his ambition will be gratified, his merit openly acknowledged, and
                    his curiosity incited and engaged to open the new course with eagerness and
                    diligence.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> The books of this series will be written by men who not only thoroughly
                    understand their subject, but can place it in the fullest and clearest light;
                    can view it from every possible stand-point that <pagebreak page_no=""/> may be
                    made available for the young intellect; can surround the subject with aptest
                    illustration, and elucidate it by the fullest and simplest explanation; can
                    impart freshness to old subjects, and win from the new all possible stores of
                    interest, and, by their understanding of, and sympathy with, the wants and
                    feelings of the young, can interest and excite them in their every-day school
                    work.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> The books will, so far as is practicable, be divided into lessons; and
                    in general, every possible arrangement will be made to save time and trouble on
                    the part of the teacher, and misunderstanding on the part of the pupil. Each set
                    of five lessons will be followed by a revise lesson, in which the salient points
                    of the preceding lessons will be repeated in different language; and, as a
                    general principle, constant reference will be made to what has preceded, while
                    the maxim of varied repetition - repetition without monotony - will never be
                    lost sight of.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> Each book will contain the largest possible collection of exercises - of
                    the most varied character, always carefully graduated, and, in general,
                    constructive as well as analytic. The pupil will be first led to a general
                    statement or rule, by a few easy exercises: he will then have more difficult
                    exercises founded upon that general statement or rule, and then exercises on the
                    exceptions to the rule. Perfect intelligence of a theory will thus be secured by
                    extraordinary fulness of practice - the method of nature in all intellectual
                    procedure.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> The Editor and Writers of this Series are profoundly convinced that the
                    first feeling that should be instilled into a boy is the feeling of power; and
                    that, with this view, every subject ought to bo approached by the easiest steps
                    and the most gradual synthesis. The natural difficulties in the way of teachers
                    and learners are so great that they may well dispense with artificial obstacles
                    raised by the compilers of school books. The common feeling of school boys
                    towards their work is that of disappointment and discouragement; it ought to be
                    one of mastery and zest. The distinctive features of these School Books will,
                    therefore, be SHORTNESS, CLEARNESS, GRADUATION, PRACTICALITY, and
                    CHEAPNESS.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> Each Work of the Series will appear in two forms—one in a stout binding,
                    PRICE SIXPENCE; the other in extra binding, ONE SHILLING. ALEXANDER IRELAND
                    &amp; CO., PALL MALL COURT, MANCHESTER; AND DORSET STREET, SALISBURY SQUARE,
                    LONDON.</paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="title_page">
                <paragraph>
                    <heading_undefined><small_caps>An Easy English Grammar for Beginners; being a
                            Plain Doctrine of Words and Sentences.</small_caps></heading_undefined>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <heading_undefined><small_caps>Book the First. Of Words and Their
                            Changes</small_caps></heading_undefined>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <small_caps>By J. M. D. Meiklejohn, M.A.</small_caps>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <italic>Here a little, and theire a little.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <small_caps>London: A. Ireland and Co. Dorset Street, Salisbury Square.
                        Manchester: Pall Mall Court. 1862.</small_caps>
                </paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="initial quotation">
                <paragraph>
                    <quotation author="Lucretius I.">Ut puerorum aetas improvida ludificetur
                        Labrorum tenus. LUCRETIUS I., 938.</quotation>
                    <quotation author="Horace Sat. I.">- ut pueris olim dant crustula bland
                        Doctores. elementa velint ut discere prima. Horace Sat. I., 1,26</quotation>
                </paragraph>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="preface" name="Notice to Teachers">
                <paragraph> The writer of this book has put just as much into it - and no more - as
                    can be learned by a child of average capacity, in five months. The book must be
                    judged of as adapted or not adapted to this purpose - as equal or unequal to
                    attaining this end. No more ought to be taught in that time. The child will have
                    quite enough of head-labour to work through the exercises within that time; and
                    a sufficient number of new ideas to assimilate and make part of its mental
                    being. It is advised that the children in whose hands it is placed begin with
                    the exercises before reading any of the text, except that small part which
                    relates to each exercise, and that the text be used not so much to impart new
                    ideas, as to give a clear and adequate expression to the notions the child must
                    have obtained - if the exercises have been worked in good faith and with any
                    thought at all.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> The guiding idea of the formation of these has been to give always two
                    corresponding sets of exercises - an analytic and a synthetic. Whatever the
                    child has to put together, he has to take to pieces again; and whatever he has
                    taken to pieces, he once more recomposes. This plan is not followed in a dull,
                    mechanical way; but this is the chief idea of the general scheme.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> No <italic>exceptional</italic> phrases, forms, or idioms have been
                    admitted into the exercises, - so far as it was possible to keep them out
                    without making them utterly dull. But the teacher is earnestly requested not to
                    give the child any explanation in the meantime of what is idiomatic and
                    exceptional, but to say at once: "I shall not answer that at present," and to
                    keep strictly to the inculcation of what is in the book, and nothing
                    more.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> It is recommended that the child be now and then allowed the assistance
                    of his reading-book in making the sentences required in the
                    Exercises.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> Many and strong objections may be made against the theory of this first
                    part.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="ii"/>
                <paragraph> I do not assert that the system of definitions given here will enable
                    one to parse and explain every word or idiom in the language. Such an assumption
                    would be monstrous. In a homogeneous language, like the German, a claim of this
                    kind might be made, and might be satisfied. But in a language that has been
                    subjected to so many and so varying influences, it is almost impossible for even
                    the subtlest thinker, or the most learned philologist, to construct a theory
                    which will embrace and account for all the idiomatic expressions of the English
                    language. Nay, it may be boldly asserted, that there is a point in the English
                    language where all theory must break down, and where we can only say: Such and
                    such is the usage, but we cannot explain it, or point out how it has grown up.
                    The usual procedure of grammatical people, when they meet with an idiom which
                    their system does not explain, is to call it "bad grammar.” They have not the
                    courage to say the truth - to say: "We do not understand this phrase.” But this
                    confession must now and then b6 made - even by the most learned philologist. It
                    will be a good discipline, too, both for the teacher and the scholar - for the
                    teacher to confess, and for the scholar to know - that this or that phrase has
                    as yet baffled the ingenuity both of his teacher and of writers on grammar. The
                    English language contains more difficult and inexplicable forms and phrases than
                    either Greek or Latin - than Greek, as it is much less homogeneous; than Latin,
                    as it is a thousand-fold more subtle and more individual. A Latin translation of
                    Shakspere would be full of gaps and all kinds of inadequacies.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> It is probable that numerous objections will be raised to the accuracy
                    of the definitions. This is not the place to defend them. One test of their
                    truth, however, may here be offered. If these definitions account for the
                    functions of a larger number of words than any previous definitions, they must
                    be truer, as they are profounder and more practical. The writer is well aware of
                    the exceptions that can be taken to them; but, in the following books of this
                    grammar, it will be clearly shown how these rudimentary types are compelled to
                    assume different forms to suit themselves to different conditions. Language is a
                    living existence, and not a manufactured product. The thorough study of it is
                    more difficult than the study of vegetable anatomy; and just as much of it, and
                    no more, should be taught to children as is requisite for their obtaining clear
                    ideas of words and sentences. This book differs from the books of preceding
                    grammarians in this: That most grammarians give definitions which have no
                    differentia, that is, which are loose and <pagebreak page_no="iii"/> inadequate,
                    and yet compel you to bring every word in the language under one, and
                        <italic>only one</italic>, of these definitions; while this book indicates
                    shortly the <italic>function</italic> of a word, and shows that its name and
                    condition, for the time being, are given by one of these categories or
                    definitions. The old question was: “What <italic>is</italic> this or that word?”
                    And the dispute often cost much aimless thinking and writing. The new question
                    is, “What is it this or that word <italic>does</italic>? What is its function?”
                    The usual procedure is to give inadequate, inconsistent, and confused
                    definitions, and to insist that all idioms and forms of language shall be
                    conformed to these. The case is just reversed in the present grammar. The
                    definitions are thoroughly self-consistent and clear; but—as will be seen in the
                    following parts—the language will not be forced to fall in to those forms. On
                    the contrary, it will be clearly shown in what instances and for what reasons
                    this is impossible. At the same time, these definitions and primary grammatical
                    notions will show how far the language has fallen away from a strict logical
                    standard.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> The strongest objection may perhaps be raised against the definition of
                    a preposition. I beg the teacher to suspend his judgment in the mean time; and I
                    am prepared to prove to him—and it will clearly appear in the subsequent
                    parts—that this definition is the result of the most thorough and complete
                    analysis. The cases in which verbs and adjectives exert an influence on
                    prepositions will of course demand, in a future part, a certain modification of
                    the original and strict demand which is made upon us <italic>always to
                        show</italic> the nouns which a preposition connects; but as the definition
                    gives the fundamental notion of a preposition, and as the last analysis would
                    always show this fundamental connection, it is well to make the pupil begin with
                    finding it in easy cases. The teacher might also call the preposition a
                        <italic>relation-giving word</italic>.—As regards the introduction of the
                    five cases, it is sufficient to say—that the language cannot be parsed without
                    them.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> One word more: The grammatical views of the writer must not be judged by
                    this little book; his notions on grammar are here given in their barest and most
                    rudimentary condition. But it is true here as in so many other fields of
                    thought—that the profoundest conceptions are also the simplest. And, in
                    teaching, the first thing is to give the child a set of clear, strict, and
                    self-consistent notions, to keep him to these for a very long while, —and, when
                    these have become part of himself and his thinking powers, to let him know about
                    exceptions and aberrations.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="iv"/>
                <paragraph> The statements in this book are not exhaustive—and are not intended to
                    be exhaustive—about any one part of any one subject. Each of the chapters here
                    given will be afterwards fully developed; and the consideration of idioms and
                    anomalies will then enter. The second part of this grammar will treat chiefly
                    about <small_caps>sentences and their organisation</small_caps>. J. M. D M.
                    Bowden, Cheshire, Christmas 1861.</paragraph>
            </div1>
        </div0>
        <div0 description="main_body" name="An Easy English Grammar for Beginners">
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Part I. - Of Words">
                <heading level="1">PART I. - OF WORDS.</heading>
                <paragraph>
                    <quotation author="Wordsworth, William">
                        <lg met="" rhyme="">
                            <l>My heart leaps up when I behold</l>
                            <l>A rainbow in the sky.</l>
                        </lg>
                    </quotation>
                    <ed_note type="addition"><reference type="quotation"
                            author="Wordsworth, William" judgemental="0"/></ed_note>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph> It is plain that this sentence is made up of words. Words, like workmen,
                    are not all of the same kind; because they have not all the same kind of work to
                    do. Some workmen are carpenters, some masons, some blacksmiths. Each word, for
                    example, in the above sentence is of a different kind from the others.
                        <italic>My</italic> is a <italic>Pronoun</italic>; <italic>heart</italic> is
                    a <italic>Noun</italic>; <italic>leaps</italic> is a <italic>Verb</italic>, and
                    so on. These are some of the names that have been given by people to the
                    different kinds of words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph> There are in our language <small_caps>seven kinds of words</small_caps>.
                    The first kind we shall talk about is the kind called
                        <small_caps>Nouns</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="2"/>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter I. Nouns.</heading>
                    <paragraph> A Noun is a Name; and <linebreak/> A Name is a Noun.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The word <italic>John</italic> is a noun, because it is a name; the
                        word <italic>London</italic> is a noun, because it is a name; the word
                            <italic>orange</italic> is a noun, because it is a name; the word
                            <italic>fun</italic> is a noun, because it is a name; and the word
                            <italic>goodness</italic> is a noun, because it is a name.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter II. Verbs.</heading>
                    <paragraph>We come next to <small_caps>Verbs</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> A Verb is a Telling Word. <linebreak/> A Telling Word is a
                        Verb.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Let us take the sentence: <lg met="" rhyme="">
                            <l>The stream that <italic>flows</italic> out of the lake,</l>
                            <l>As trough the glen it <italic>rambles</italic>,</l>
                            <l><italic>Repeats</italic> a moan, o'er moss and stone,</l>
                            <l>For those seven lovely Campbells.</l>
                        </lg>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> In this sentence, <italic>flows</italic>, <italic>rambles</italic>,
                        and <italic>repeats</italic>, are verbs; because they
                            <small_caps>tell</small_caps> that the river <italic>flows</italic> and
                            <pagebreak page_no="3"/>
                        <italic>rambles</italic> and <italic>repeats</italic>. Again, let us take
                        the sentence, Jack <italic>saw</italic> Tom when he <italic>ran</italic>
                        down the road. Here <italic>saw</italic> and <italic>ran</italic>, are
                        verbs, because <italic>saw</italic>
                        <small_caps>tells</small_caps> something about Jack, and
                            <italic>ran</italic>
                        <small_caps>tells</small_caps> something about Tom.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> A <small_caps>word that tells</small_caps>, therefore,
                            <small_caps>is a Verb</small_caps>; and <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Verb is a word that tells, or a Telling Word</small_caps>.
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter III. Adjectives.</heading>
                    <paragraph>We come to <small_caps>Adjectives</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> An Adjective is a Noun-Marking Word. <linebreak/> A Noun-Marking
                        word is an Adjective.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Thus: "<italic>The black man sold the spotted dog to the old
                            gentleman.</italic>" In this sentence the words <italic>black</italic>,
                            <italic>spotted</italic>, <italic>old</italic>, and
                        <italic>the</italic>, mark the nouns <italic>man</italic>,
                            <italic>dog</italic>, and <italic>gentleman</italic>.
                            <italic>Black</italic> marks the noun <italic>man</italic>, and helps me
                        to know that man among other men; <italic>spotted</italic> marks the noun
                            <italic>dog</italic>, and helps me to distinguish the dog we are talking
                        of from other dogs; and <italic>old</italic> marks the noun
                            <italic>gentleman</italic>, and helps me to mark out that gentleman from
                        gentlemen who are young or middle-aged. The word <italic>the</italic> marks
                        out <italic>the particular black man we are talking about</italic> from
                        among all other <italic>black men</italic>; and so of the rest. The word
                            <italic>the</italic> is like a ☞ on a fingerpost; <pagebreak page_no="4"
                        /> it <italic>points out</italic> the thing that we happen to be speaking or
                        writing about, but it has not any meaning of its own.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Thus we see that the words <italic>the</italic>,
                            <italic>black</italic>, <italic>spotted</italic>, and
                            <italic>old</italic> mark the nouns <italic>man</italic>,
                            <italic>dog</italic>, and <italic>gentleman</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> They are therefore noun-marking words. But a noun-marking word is
                        called an Adjective.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We now know, therefore, that — <linebreak/>
                        <italic>An Adjective is a marking word</italic>; and that <linebreak/>
                        <italic>An Adjective always marks Nouns</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We may, therefore, say that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>An Adjective is a Noun-marking Word</small_caps>; or that <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Noun-marking Word is an Adjective</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter IV. Adverbs.</heading>
                    <paragraph>Next come <small_caps>Adverbs.</small_caps></paragraph>
                    <paragraph>An Adverb is also a <italic>marking</italic> word. But it does not
                        mark nouns. It marks only verbs, or adjectives, or other adverbs, like
                        itself. We may therefore call an adverb a <italic>verb-marking
                        word</italic>, or an <italic>adjective-marking word</italic>, or an
                            <italic>adverb-marking word</italic>. For example: "The
                            <italic>extremely</italic> black man <italic>yesterday</italic> sold
                            <pagebreak page_no="5"/> the spotted dog to the <italic>very</italic>
                        old gentleman." In this sentence, <italic>extremely</italic> marks
                            <italic>black</italic>, and shows how black the man was — that is, that
                        he was <italic>extremely</italic> black; <italic>yesterday</italic>marks
                            <italic>sold</italic>, and shows <italic>when</italic> he sold the dog;
                        and <italic>very</italic> marks <italic>old</italic>, and shows
                            <italic>how</italic> old the gentleman was — that is, that he was
                            <italic>very</italic> old. In this sentence, therefore,
                            <italic>extremely</italic> is an <italic>adjective-marking
                        word</italic>, and <italic>yesterday</italic> is a <italic>verb-marking
                            word</italic>. When I say: “Tom runs very fast,” I use two adverbs,
                            <italic>very</italic> and <italic>fast</italic>. <italic>Fast</italic>
                        marks the verb <italic>runs</italic>, and shows <italic>how</italic> Tom
                        runs; and <italic>very</italic> marks the adverb <italic>fast</italic>, and
                        shows <italic>how</italic> fast the running is. <italic>Fast</italic> is
                        therefore an adverb or <italic>verb-marking</italic> word; and
                            <italic>very</italic> is an adverb or <italic>adverb-marking</italic>
                        word.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> But, for the sake of convenience, it may be easier and become
                        afterwards more simple, to say that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>An Adverb is a Modifying Word</small_caps>, or <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Modifying Word is an Adverb</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The word <italic>modifying</italic> is, however, just at first a
                        hard word to understand. Let us try to understand it by the example of a cup
                        of coffee. Before I put either cream or sugar into the coffee, it has a
                        rather bitter taste. When I put some sugar into it, it becomes less bitter.
                        That is, the sugar has modified, or altered, or changed, the taste of the
                        coffee. If I add some milk or cream, the taste is still more modified or
                        changed or altered. Now let us take <pagebreak page_no="6"/> the sentence:
                        "He runs." When I say <italic>He runs</italic>, I don’t tell you whether he
                        runs <italic>fast</italic> or <italic>slow</italic>, <italic>neatly</italic>
                        or <italic>awkwardly</italic>, <italic>here</italic> or
                            <italic>there</italic>. But when I say <italic>He runs fast</italic>,
                        the word <italic>fast</italic> modifies the word <italic>runs</italic>, and
                        lets us know what kind of running he is making; and when I say <italic>He
                            runs very fast</italic>, the word <italic>very</italic> modifies the
                        word <italic>fast</italic>, and lets us know that the fastness of the
                        running is very great. So that <italic>fast</italic> modifies
                            <italic>runs</italic>; and <italic>very</italic> modifies
                            <italic>fast</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Modifying words must then, we see, modify something.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Modifying Words or Adverbs always modify either Verbs, or
                        Adjectives, or other Adverbs.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph type="example"> Here are examples of each: — <italic> (a) Tom reads
                            well. <linebreak/> (b) The potatoes are quite cold. <linebreak/> (c)
                            Jack walks very clumsily.</italic>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> In <italic>(a)</italic> the adverb well modifies the verb
                            <italic>reads</italic>; in <italic>(b)</italic> the adverb
                            <italic>quite</italic> modifies the adjective <italic>cold</italic>; and
                        in <italic>(c)</italic> the adverb <italic>very</italic> modifies the adverb
                            <italic>clumsily</italic>, which itself modifies the verb
                            <italic>walks</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We have found, therefore, that an <small_caps>Adverb</small_caps> is
                        either a — <linebreak/> (1) <small_caps>Verb-Modifying Word</small_caps>, or
                        <linebreak/> (2) <small_caps>An Adjective-Modifying Word</small_caps>, or
                        <linebreak/> (3) <small_caps>An Adverb-Modifying Word</small_caps>.
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <pagebreak page_no="7"/>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter V. Prepositions.</heading>
                    <paragraph>We now arrive at <small_caps>Prepositions</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>A Preposition is a joining word. If it is a joining word, it must
                        join something. What, then, does it join? It joins Nouns.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> A Preposition is, then, a Noun-joining Word; and <linebreak/> A
                        Noun-joining Word is a Preposition.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Let us take a sentence or two: (1) "The man with the long nose is
                        dead." Here <italic>with</italic> joins <italic>man</italic> and
                            <italic>nose</italic>. (2) "I saw the gamekeeper <italic>with</italic>
                        his gun in his hand." Here <italic>with</italic> joins
                            <italic>gamekeeper</italic> and <italic>gun</italic>, while
                            <italic>in</italic> joins <italic>gun</italic> and
                        <italic>hand</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Sometimes a verb comes between the preposition and one of the nouns
                        it connects. Thus: "Oliver is in the garden." Here <italic>in</italic> joins
                            <italic>Oliver</italic> and <italic>garden</italic>, although the verb
                            <italic>is</italic> comes between them. Take another sentence: "The
                        mists sweep over the fields." Here <italic>over</italic> connects
                            <italic>mists</italic> and <italic>fields</italic>, although the verb
                            <italic>sweep</italic> comes between. Sometimes, too, an adjective comes
                        between the preposition and one of the nouns it connects; but the connection
                        between the nouns is not on that account destroyed. Take the sentence: "John
                        is uneasy about his brother." Here <italic>about</italic> connects
                            <italic>John</italic> and <italic>brother</italic>; although it seems to
                        connect <pagebreak page_no="8"/>
                        <italic>uneasy </italic>and <italic>brother</italic>. This is a very
                        difficult case to understand; but it will be fully explained in a future
                        part.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We may also say that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Preposition is a Noun-connecting Word</small_caps>, or <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Noun-connecting Word is a Preposition</small_caps>.
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter VI. Conjunctions.</heading>
                    <paragraph>But there is another kind of joining word, called a
                            <small_caps>Conjunction</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> A Conjunction is a Sentence-joining Word, or <linebreak/> A
                        Sentence-joining Word is a Conjunction.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> But I have a right to ask what a sentence is. Well, then, <italic>a
                            sentence is a statement in which the sense is complete</italic>. If I
                        say, "<italic>Tom</italic>," there is no sense in that as yet — that is, I
                        have made no statement; but if I say, "<italic>Tom runs</italic>," the sense
                        is complete, and I have made a statement in which there is complete sense.
                        This definition will do for the present.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Let us take the sentence: "James looked sad, <italic>and</italic>
                        was very unhappy." Here the word <italic>and</italic> joins the sentence —
                        "James looked sad," to the sentence <pagebreak page_no="9"/> "James was very
                        unhappy." Or take the sentence: "The keeper will seize you, if you take that
                        nest." Here the word <italic>if</italic> joins or connects the sentences —
                        "The keeper will <italic>seize</italic> you," and "You <italic>take</italic>
                        that nest." </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Therefore, we have found that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Conjunction is a Sentence-connecting Word</small_caps>, or
                        <linebreak/> A <small_caps>Sentence-connecting Word is a
                            Conjunction</small_caps>.<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph
                                type="footnote">The only word to which this definition will not
                                apply is <italic>and</italic>. The reason for this will be
                                afterwards given.</paragraph></footnote>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter VII. Pronouns.</heading>
                    <paragraph> We could manage to keep up any conversation, however long, or to
                        write a book, however big, with the aid of these six kinds of words, or — as
                        many people call them — parts of language, or parts of speech; that is, with
                        the help only of Nouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Adjectives, Prepositions, and
                        Conjunctions. But there is another kind of word we employ, not because we
                        must do so, but for the sake of convenience. This kind of word is called a
                            <small_caps>Pronoun</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun; or <linebreak/> A Word
                        used instead of a Noun is a Pronoun; or <linebreak/> A Pronoun is a
                        For-name; or <linebreak/> A For-name is a Pronoun.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="10"/>
                    <paragraph> For example, if I say: "Ned went to market; and, as Ned was
                        returning home, Ned fell into a ditch. Ned would have been there who knows
                        how long, if a man had not come up to Ned and pulled Ned out. Ned was a
                        pretty sight; Ned was caked with mud from Ned’s cap to Ned’s boots." So many
                            <italic>Neds</italic> are clumsy and troublesome; we therefore use the
                        word <italic>he</italic> instead of the word <italic>Ned</italic>. But the
                        word <italic>Ned</italic> is a noun; and a word used instead of a noun is a
                        pronoun. But <italic>he</italic> is used instead of the
                            <italic>noun</italic> Ned; therefore <italic>he</italic> is a
                        pronoun.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We know, therefore, that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Pronoun is a For-name</small_caps>; or <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A For-name is a Pronoun</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter VIII. Interjections.</heading>
                    <paragraph> An Interjection is not properly a word. It may be a mere sound.
                        Dogs, pigs, and other animals, use interjections. When any one treads on our
                        toes, we say "O!" If the pain continues a long time, we may come to say "Oh!
                        Oh!" If we are pitying anybody, we may be brought to say "Ah!" If we think
                        very little of what a person is saying, we may feel <pagebreak page_no="11"
                        /> ourselves called upon to say "Pooh! pooh!" or, if he persists in talking
                        nonsense, we might venture so far as to utter "Pshaw!" But these are not
                            <italic>words</italic>, any more than the bark of a dog, or the grunt of
                        a pig. We sometimes, however, say "Dear me!" or you may hear silly people
                        say "Did you ever!" or "Lawk a-daisy!" These are words, to be sure, but they
                        are words with no sense in them; they are words used merely as
                            <italic>sounds</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We find, therefore, that — <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>An Interjection is a Sound, or a Word used only as a
                            Sound</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter IX. The Seven Kinds of Words.</heading>
                    <paragraph> We now know that — <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item><small_caps>A Noun is a Name.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>2</label><item><small_caps>A Verb is a Telling
                                Word.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>3</label><item><small_caps>An Adjective is a Noun-Marking
                                    Word.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>4</label><item><small_caps>An Adverb is a Modifying
                                    Word.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>5</label><item><small_caps>A Preposition is a Noun-Connecting
                                    Word.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>6</label><item><small_caps>A Conjunction is a Sentence-Connecting
                                    Word.</small_caps></item>
                            <label>7</label><item><small_caps>A Pronoun is a
                                For-Name.</small_caps></item>
                        </list>
                        <folio folio_no="B"/>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="12"/>
                    <paragraph> Or we may put these facts another way, which comes to the same
                        thing. <small_caps>In Grammar</small_caps><list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>A Name is called <small_caps>A
                                Noun</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>A Telling Word is called <small_caps>A
                                    Verb</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>A Noun-marking Word is called <small_caps>An
                                    Adjective</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>4</label><item>A Modifying Word is called <small_caps>An
                                    Adverb</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>5</label><item>A Noun-connecting Word is called <small_caps>A
                                    Preposition</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>6</label><item>A Sentence-connecting Word is called <small_caps>A
                                    Conjunction</small_caps>.</item>
                            <label>7</label><item>A For-name is called <small_caps>A
                                    Pronoun</small_caps>.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We see, too, that all words fall into groups or sets.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Adjectives and Prepositions are always in company with Nouns;
                        <linebreak/> Adverbs<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph
                                type="footnote">It must not be forgotten that adverbs may also go
                                with adjectives and other adverbs. Why this is so will be afterwards
                                explained.</paragraph></footnote> and Conjunctions are always in
                        company with Verbs.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="2" rows="2">
                            <row>
                                <cell><small_caps>Adjectives : Nouns</small_caps></cell>
                                <cell><small_caps>Adverbs : Verbs</small_caps></cell>
                            </row>
                            <row>
                                <cell><small_caps>Prepositions : Nouns</small_caps></cell>
                                <cell><small_caps>Conjunctions : Verbs</small_caps></cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter X. How Words are Used.</heading>
                    <paragraph> A man may have two or three different trades, which he carries on at
                        the same time. He may be a shoemaker, and have a grocer’s shop, and at the
                        same <pagebreak page_no="13"/> time be a pew-opener on Sundays. When he is
                        making shoes, he is a shoemaker; when he is selling sugar, he is a grocer;
                        and when he is taking charge of the church or chapel, he is a
                        pew-opener.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> In the same way, a word may be of two or three or four kinds. That
                        is, it may belong to two or three or four different classes. That is to say,
                        a word is not always a verb, or <italic>always</italic> a noun, or
                            <italic>always</italic> an adjective.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> For example, the word round may be — <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>A Noun, or</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>An Adjective, or</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>A Verb, or</item>
                            <label>4</label><item>A Preposition.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In the sentence, "What a big round of beef," it is a
                            <italic>Noun</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In the sentence, "He showed me a round cheese," it is an
                            <italic>Adjective</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In the sentence, "Tom Jones rounded the point in his boat," it is a
                            <italic>Verb</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In the sentence, "Captain Cook sailed round the world," it is a
                            <italic>Preposition</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> To find out what a word is, we must therefore <italic>not</italic>
                        look at the word itself, but consider what the word is
                            <italic>doing</italic>, or what <small_caps>use</small_caps> is made of
                        the word.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Thus in (1), <italic>round</italic> is <italic>used</italic> as a
                        name; in (2) it is <italic>used</italic> as a marking-word — to mark out the
                        cheese shown to me from other cheeses; in (3) it is <italic>used</italic> as
                        a telling-word — to tell something about Tom Jones; <pagebreak page_no="14"
                        /> and in (4) it is <italic>used</italic> as a preposition or
                        noun-connecting word, to connect the nouns <italic>Cook</italic> and
                            <italic>world</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Now all <italic>thinking</italic> is simply asking oneself
                        questions. When I ask myself questions I am thinking; when I leave off
                        asking myself questions I leave off thinking.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> If, therefore, I want to find out what kind of word this or that
                        word is, I have only to ask myself the following questions, till I get hold
                        of the right answer: — <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>name</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If it is, then it is
                                a Name or Noun.</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>telling-word</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If it is,
                                then it is a Telling-word or Verb.</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>noun-marking word</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If it
                                is, then it is a Noun-marking word or Adjective.</item>
                            <label>4</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>modifying-word</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If it is,
                                then it is a Modifying-word or Adverb.</item>
                            <label>5</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>noun-connecting word</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If
                                it is, then it is a Noun-connecting word or Preposition.</item>
                            <label>6</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> as a
                                    <small_caps>sentence-connecting word</small_caps>? <linebreak/>
                                If it is, then it is a Sentence-connecting word or
                                Conjunction.</item>
                            <label>7</label><item>Is this word <italic>used</italic> instead of a
                                    <small_caps>noun</small_caps>? <linebreak/> If it is, then it is
                                a For-noun or Pronoun.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter XII. How Words Go with Each Other.<ed_note
                            type="note">There is no chapter XI in part 1</ed_note></heading>
                    <paragraph>From what we have already found out, it is quite plain that — </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="15"/>
                    <paragraph>1. A <italic>Noun</italic> or <italic>Pronoun</italic> will not make
                        sense without a <italic>Verb</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Thus "John"—is not sense. <linebreak/> Thus "He" —is not
                        sense.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>But "John walks" or "He walks" is sense.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>2. A <italic>Verb</italic> will not make sense without a
                            <italic>Noun</italic> or <italic>Pronoun</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Thus — "Runs" is not sense. But "Tom runs" or "He runs" is
                        sense.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>3. An <italic>Adjective</italic> cannot stand by itself, but must
                        always be joined to a <italic>Noun</italic>, expressed or
                        understood.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>It is true we have such sentences as: "The good are generally loved"
                        and "The bad ought to be punished." But the <italic>full</italic> phrase
                        would be "The good men and women," "The bad men and women." So that we see
                        that the adjectives "good" and "bad" mark the nouns "men" and "women,"
                        although these words are not expressed, but only understood.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>4. An <italic>Adverb</italic> cannot stand by itself, but must always
                        be joined to a <italic>Verb</italic>, or an <italic>Adjective</italic>, or
                        an <italic>Adverb</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Thus we cannot say "He is very;" but "He is very good." It is
                        nonsense to say "He beautifully;" but it is sense to say "He plays
                        beautifully." It is absurd to say "He writes extremely;" but it is sense to
                        say "He writes extremely well."</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="16"/>
                    <paragraph>A <italic>Preposition</italic> cannot stand by itself, but must
                        always be found between a <italic>Noun</italic> and a <italic>Noun</italic>,
                        or a <italic>Noun</italic> and a <italic>Pronoun</italic>, or a
                            <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a <italic>Noun</italic>, or a
                            <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a <italic>Pronoun</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Thus we cannot say: "John was with;" but we must say "John was with
                        his brother," or some such noun. In this sentence <italic>with</italic>
                        joins the two nouns <italic>John</italic> and <italic>brother</italic>. We
                        can also say: — <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>John was with him.</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>He was with James.</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>He was with them.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>In (1) the preposition <italic>with</italic> joins a noun and a
                        pronoun; in (2) it joins a pronoun and a noun; in (3) it joins a pronoun and
                        a pronoun.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>6. A <italic>Conjunction</italic> cannot stand by itself but must
                        always be found between a <italic>Verb expressed</italic> and a <italic>Verb
                            understood</italic>, or between a <italic>Verb understood</italic> and a
                            <italic>Verb expressed</italic>, or between a <italic>Verb
                            expressed</italic> and another <italic>Verb
                        expressed</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>Thus we cannot say: "He will come, if;" but we must say something
                        like this: "He will come, if I tell him." Here the conjunction
                            <italic>if</italic> joins the sentence "He will come" to the sentence "I
                        tell him." Take the sentences: <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>John went home, but not James.</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>John and James went home.</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>John went home, but James refused.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="17"/>
                    <paragraph>In (1) the conjunction <italic>but</italic> joins the sentence "John
                        went" to the sentence "James went not." The verb <italic>went</italic> is
                            <italic>understood</italic> in the latter sentence. In (2) the
                        conjunction <italic>and</italic> joins the sentence "John went" to the
                        sentence "James went." The <italic>verb</italic> went is
                            <italic>understood</italic> in the first sentence. In (3) the
                        conjunction <italic>but</italic> joins the sentence "John went" to the
                        sentence "James refused." In both these sentences the <italic>verbs are
                            expressed</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> ☞ The reason why a conjunction is found only between verbs is the
                        following: — A <italic>verb</italic> is the chief word in a sentence,
                        because a verb is a telling-word. If there were no telling-word in a
                        sentence, there would be nothing told — there would be no statement, and
                        therefore no sentence. As a verb, then, is the chief word in a sentence, the
                        conjunction may be said to join verbs, as well as sentences; or, we may say
                        that — </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <small_caps> A Conjunction is a Verb-connecting Word</small_caps>; or <linebreak/>
                        <small_caps>A Verb-connecting Word is a Conjunction</small_caps>.
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="main_text" name="Part II. Of the Changes in Words">
                <heading level="1">PART II. - OF THE CHANGES IN WORDS.</heading>
                <paragraph> Words are not always the same; they undergo changes in their spelling.
                    Thus <italic>horse</italic> becomes <italic>horses</italic>, when I want to talk
                    about more than one horse; man becomes <italic>men</italic>, when I want to
                    speak about more than one man. When a word is changed, it is said to be
                        <italic>inflected</italic>; and the change itself is called an
                        <italic>inflection</italic>. It is the <italic>endings</italic> of words
                    that are usually changed. When a boy puts on a new pair of boots or a new cap,
                    he may be said to be inflected or changed as to his endings or extremities, like
                    boy, boy<italic>s</italic>; when he enters on a new jacket, he is inflected
                    centrally, that is, in the middle, like goose, <italic>geese</italic>. The kinds
                    of words that can be changed or inflected are — 1. The Noun. 2. The Pronoun. 3.
                    The Adjective. 4. The Verb. 5. The Adverb. The Preposition and the Conjunction
                    are <italic>never</italic> changed or inflected.</paragraph>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter I. Changes or Inflections in Nouns.</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Number.</heading>
                    <paragraph>If I am speaking about one boy, I say boy; if I am speaking about
                        two, I say <italic>boys</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="19"/>
                    <paragraph><italic>Boy</italic> is then said to be in the <italic>Singular
                            Number</italic>. <italic>Boys</italic> is said to be in the
                            <italic>Plural Number</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1</label><item>In most nouns, the plural is made by adding
                                    <italic>s</italic> to the singular. As book, books.</item>
                            <label>2</label><item>In nouns which end in <italic>s</italic>,
                                    <italic>sh</italic>, <italic>ch</italic>, <italic>x</italic>, or
                                    <italic>o</italic>, we add <italic>es</italic> to the singular.
                                As box, boxes.</item>
                            <label>3</label><item>In nouns which end in <italic>y</italic>,
                                    <italic>with a consonant before it</italic>, we change
                                    <italic>y</italic> into <italic>ies</italic>. As lady, ladies.
                                <linebreak/> ☞ If a vowel comes before the <italic>y</italic>, we
                                don't change the <italic>y</italic>, but only add
                                <italic>s</italic>. As toy, toys.</item>
                            <label>4</label><item>Nouns that end in <italic>f</italic> or
                                    <italic>fe</italic> generally take <italic>ves</italic> in the
                                plural. As calf, calves; knife, knives.</item>
                            <label>5</label><item>Many nouns make the plural by changing the vowel
                                that is in the singular. As man, men. Here <italic>a</italic> is
                                changed into <italic>e</italic>.</item>
                            <label>6</label><item>A very few nouns make the plural by adding
                                    <italic>en</italic> to the singular. As ox, oxen.</item>
                            <label>7</label><item>Some words have their plural like their singular.
                                As one sheep, ten sheep.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Case.</heading>
                    <paragraph>When a person is very ill, we may say, "He is in a sad case" or "a
                        sad condition;" when he has done something far from right, we may say, "He
                        is in a bad case" or "a bad condition." Therefore the word <pagebreak
                            page_no="20"/>
                        <italic>case</italic> means <italic>condition</italic>. Nouns can be in
                        cases or conditions; just like people.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Nouns can be in five cases or conditions: — <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1.</label><item>The Nominative or Named Case.</item>
                            <label>2.</label><item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note> Dative
                                    <ed_note type="addition">or</ed_note> Given-to, or Done-for
                                Case.</item>
                            <label>3.</label><item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note><ed_note
                                    type="addition">or</ed_note></item>
                            <label>4.</label><item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note> Objective
                                    <ed_note type="addition">or</ed_note> Done-to Case.</item>
                            <label>5.</label><item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note>Vocative
                                    <ed_note type="addition">or</ed_note> Spoken-to Case</item>
                        </list> Or, </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>The <italic>Named case</italic> of a noun is called the
                                    <italic>Nominative case</italic>.</item>
                            <item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note>
                                <italic>Possessing case</italic>
                                <ed_note type="addition">of a noun is called</ed_note> Possessive
                                case.</item>
                            <item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note>
                                <italic>Given-to or Done-for case</italic>
                                <ed_note type="addition">of a noun is called</ed_note> Dative
                                case.</item>
                            <item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note>
                                <italic>Done-to case</italic>
                                <ed_note type="addition">of a noun is called</ed_note>
                                <italic>Objective case</italic>.</item>
                            <item><ed_note type="addition">The</ed_note>
                                <italic>Spoken-to case </italic><ed_note type="addition">of a noun
                                    is called</ed_note>
                                <italic>Vocative case</italic>.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> In the sentence, "John is sick," <italic>John</italic> is in the
                        Nominative case. <linebreak/> In the sentence, "John’s hat is lost,"
                            <italic>John's</italic> is in the Possessive case. <linebreak/> In the
                        sentence, "He gave John a book," <italic>John</italic> is in the Dative or
                        Given-to case. <linebreak/> In the sentence, "He made John a ship,"
                            <italic>John</italic> is in the Dative or Done-for case. <linebreak/> In
                        the sentence, "He struck John," <italic>John</italic> is in the Objective
                        case. <linebreak/> In the sentence, "John, come here," <italic>John</italic>
                        is in the Vocative case.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Many hundred years ago, our forefathers made a change in the ending
                        of every noun or pronoun, <pagebreak page_no="21"/> according to whether it
                        stood in one or other of these cases. <italic>Now</italic>, the only change
                        that is made is for the <italic>possessive case</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> 1. The Possessive is written, in the Singular, by adding an
                        apostrophe and <italic>s</italic>. Boy, boy's.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> 2. The Possessive is written, in the Plural, by adding an apostrophe
                        Boys, boys'. But, when the plural does <italic>not</italic> end in
                            <italic>s</italic>, we must write <italic>both</italic> an apostrophe
                        and an <italic>s</italic>. As Men, men's.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> ☞ The Possessive case is now kept chiefly for nouns which are the
                        names of living beings, and is not used for the names of things. We do not
                        often now hear such expressions as <italic>the house's roof</italic> or
                            <italic>the box's lid</italic>. Therefore we must carefully notice that
                        — The names of things have seldom any inflection at all for
                            <italic>case</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Gender.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1.</label><item>The names of male animals are said to be
                                    <italic>masculine</italic>. As Horse, King, Uncle.</item>
                            <label>2.</label><item>The names of female animals are said to be
                                    <italic>feminine</italic>. As Mare, Queen, Aunt.</item>
                            <label>3.</label><item>The names of things without life are said to be
                                    <italic>neither</italic> or <italic>neuter</italic>. As Stable,
                                Throne, Shilling. <linebreak/> When we call them
                                    <italic>neither</italic>, we mean <italic>neither
                                    masculine</italic> nor <italic>feminine</italic>.</item>
                            <label>4.</label><item>The names of living creatures that may be either
                                masculine or feminine are said to be <italic>common</italic> or
                                    <pagebreak page_no="22"/>
                                <italic>either</italic>; that is, <italic>either masculine or
                                    feminine</italic>. As Cousin, Bird, Parent.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> There are therefore two genders: <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1.</label><item>Masculine</item>
                            <label>2.</label><item>Feminine.</item>
                        </list>
                        <italic> Neither of the two</italic> is called Neuter or Neither. <linebreak/>
                        <italic>Either of the two</italic> is called Common or Either.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> When we want to change a masculine noun into the corresponding
                        feminine, we may do one of four things: <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1.</label><item>We may add <italic>ess</italic>, as Shepherd,
                                Shepherdess. <footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph
                                        type="footnote">This addition sometimes also requires a
                                        change in the spelling of the original noun: as
                                            <italic>Actor</italic>, <italic>Actress</italic>;
                                            <italic>Emperor</italic>,
                                        <italic>Empress</italic>.</paragraph></footnote></item>
                            <label>2.</label><item>We may add <italic>ine</italic>, as Hero,
                                Heroine.</item>
                            <label>3.</label><item>We may use a different word, as Father,
                                Mother.</item>
                            <label>4.</label><item>We may prefix the word <italic>she</italic>, as
                                Goat, She-goat.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter II. Changes in the Pronoun.</heading>
                    <paragraph>The Pronoun, like the noun, is changed or inflected for Number, Case,
                        and Gender.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Number.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>I has in the plural We</item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has in the plural</ed_note> You [or
                                Ye]</item>
                            <item>He <ed_note type="addition">has in the plural</ed_note>
                                They.</item>
                            <item>She <ed_note type="addition">has in the plural</ed_note>
                                They.</item>
                            <item>It <ed_note type="addition">has in the plural</ed_note>
                                They.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <pagebreak page_no="23"/>
                    <heading level="3">Case.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>I has My or Mine in the Possessive Case</item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Thy or Thine <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>He <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> His <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>She <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Her or Hers <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>It <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Its <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>We <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Our or Ours <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>You <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Your or Yours <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Possessive Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Their or Theirs
                                    <ed_note type="addition">in the Possessive
                                Case.</ed_note></item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>I has Me in the Dative Case</item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Thee <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>He <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Him <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>She <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Her <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>It <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> It <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>We <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Us <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>You <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> You <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Them <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Dative Case.</ed_note></item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>I has Me in the Objective Case</item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Thee <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>He <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Him <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>She <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Her <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>It <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> It <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>We <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Us <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>You <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> You <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                            <item>Thou <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> Them <ed_note
                                    type="addition">in the Objective Case.</ed_note></item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>☞ The Dative and Objective Cases are exactly alike. Formerly, they
                        were different; but people <pagebreak page_no="24"/> began to use the dative
                        case as an objective, and they have kept the habit up to this
                        time.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The pronoun I cannot have a Vocative or Called-to Case, because I
                        don't need to call to myself. <linebreak/> Thou has Thou in Vocative Case.
                        <linebreak/> You <ed_note type="addition">has</ed_note> You <ed_note
                            type="addition">in the Vocative Case.</ed_note>
                        <linebreak/>
                        <italic>He</italic>, <italic>She</italic>, <italic>It</italic>, and
                            <italic>They</italic>, cannot have a Vocative case, because they are
                        always used when we speak <italic>of</italic> people and things, and not
                        when we speak <italic>to</italic> them.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Gender.</heading>
                    <paragraph><italic>I</italic> and <italic>Thou</italic> have not a Feminine or
                        Neuter Gender. <italic>He</italic> has <italic>She</italic> in the Feminine
                        and <italic>It</italic> in the Neuter.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>There is another pronoun, which is called the Relative Pronoun. When,
                        for example, we say, "I know the man who sells fowls," the word
                            <italic>who</italic> is said to stand for the noun <italic>man</italic>,
                        and is therefore a <italic>pronoun</italic>. But it also
                            <italic>relates</italic> to man, and therefore it is called a
                            <italic>relative</italic> or relating pronoun. It would be better to
                        call it a <italic>conjunctive</italic> or <italic>joining</italic> pronoun,
                        because it joins the sentence "I know the man" and the sentence "who sells
                        fowls."</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Gender of Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.</heading>
                    <paragraph> Who is masculine or feminine. It has another form —
                            <italic>which</italic>. The form <italic>which</italic> is either
                        masculine or feminine or neuter; but it is used only when we are <pagebreak
                            page_no="25"/> speaking about irrational animals (all animals except men
                        and women) and things.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><italic>That</italic> is also sometimes a relative pronoun, and can
                        be used at any time instead of <italic>who</italic> or
                            <italic>which</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>This pronoun is not changed or inflected for anything but case. Thus
                        — <table cols="2" rows="6">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell><ed_note type="addition">Case</ed_note></cell>
                                <cell><ed_note type="addition">Pronoun</ed_note></cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Nominative</cell>
                                <cell>Who</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Possessive</cell>
                                <cell>Whose</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Dative</cell>
                                <cell>(Wanting<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph
                                            type="footnote">You can say, "I gave
                                                <italic>him</italic> the book," but you cannot say
                                            "The boy, <italic>whom</italic> I gave the book, is
                                            sick."</paragraph></footnote>)</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Objective</cell>
                                <cell>Whom</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Vocative</cell>
                                <cell>(Wanting)</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter III. Changes or Inflections in the
                        Adjective.</heading>
                    <paragraph> Let us take four pieces of paper. I can say: This one is
                            <italic>white</italic>, that is <italic>whiter</italic>, the other is
                        the <italic>whitest</italic>, and the fourth is only
                            <italic>whitish</italic>. <list rend="numbered">
                            <label>1.</label><item>The word <italic>white</italic> is said to be in
                                the <italic>positive</italic> degree; because the paper is said to
                                be <italic>positively</italic> white.</item>
                            <label>2.</label><item>The word <italic>whiter</italic> is said to be in
                                the <italic>comparative</italic> degree; because the one piece of
                                paper has been <italic>compared</italic> with the other.</item>
                            <pagebreak page_no="26"/>
                            <label>3.</label><item>The word <italic>whitest</italic> is said to be
                                in the <italic>superlative</italic> degree; because the paper is
                                whiter than all other paper compared with it, and
                                    <italic>superlative</italic> means <italic>highest of
                                    all</italic>.</item>
                            <label>4.</label><item>The word <italic>whitish</italic> is said to be
                                in the <italic>sub-positive</italic> degree; because it is
                                    <italic>under the positive</italic>. <italic>Sub</italic> means
                                    <italic>under</italic>.</item>
                        </list>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The word degree means step. There are therefore four degrees or
                        steps — one down, two up, and one on the ground-level. Thus — <table
                            cols="4" rows="2">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Sub-positive</cell>
                                <cell><bold>Positive</bold></cell>
                                <cell>Comparative</cell>
                                <cell>Superlative</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Whitish</cell>
                                <cell><bold>White</bold></cell>
                                <cell>Whiter</cell>
                                <cell>Whitest</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                        <graphic page="26" image_id="0" url="images/0_0.jpg"
                            desc="Steigerungsformen" filetype="jpg"/>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The Comparative degree is formed by adding r or er. The Superlative
                        degree is formed by adding st or est. The Sub-positive degree is formed by
                        adding ish. Very few adjectives take the sub-positive degree.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph><small_caps>But</small_caps>, when a word has two, or more than
                        two, syllables <linebreak/> The Comparative is generally formed by prefixing
                        the adverb <italic>more</italic>. <pagebreak page_no="27"/> The Superlative
                        is generally formed by prefixing the adverb <italic>most</italic>.
                        <linebreak/> The Sub-positive is generally formed by prefixing the adverb
                            <italic>rather</italic>. <linebreak/> As Splendid, more splendid, most
                        splendid.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Some adjectives are compared in an irregular manner. Here are a few:
                        — <table cols="3" rows="8">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Positive</cell>
                                <cell>Comparative</cell>
                                <cell>Superlative</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Good</cell>
                                <cell>Better</cell>
                                <cell>Best</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Bad</cell>
                                <cell>Worse</cell>
                                <cell>Worst</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Evil</cell>
                                <cell>Worse</cell>
                                <cell>Worst</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Ill</cell>
                                <cell>Worse</cell>
                                <cell>Worst</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Little</cell>
                                <cell>Less</cell>
                                <cell>Least</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Much</cell>
                                <cell>More</cell>
                                <cell>Most</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Many</cell>
                                <cell>More</cell>
                                <cell>Most</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter IV. Changes or Inflections in the Verb</heading>
                    <heading level="3">Time or Tense</heading>
                    <paragraph> Let us take the verb <italic>walk</italic>. When we want to join
                            <italic>walk</italic> to the pronoun <italic>I</italic> in the
                            <italic>present</italic> time or tense, we say "I walk;" if in the
                            <italic>past</italic> time or tense, we say, "I walked." </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> We see from this that verbs are changed or inflected for
                            <italic>time</italic>; and that to turn a verb into past time we have
                        only to add <italic>ed</italic>.</paragraph>
                    <folio folio_no="C"/>
                    <paragraph> Many verbs are, however, changed or inflected for time centrally —
                        that is, in the middle. As <italic>present</italic>, "I write,"
                            <italic>past</italic>, "I wrote." </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> The following are a few of the verbs that are changed centrally for
                        time or tense: — <table cols="2" rows="7">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Present</cell>
                                <cell>Past</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Think</cell>
                                <cell>Thought</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Make</cell>
                                <cell>Made</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Know</cell>
                                <cell>Knew</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Do</cell>
                                <cell>Did</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Have</cell>
                                <cell>Had</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Blow</cell>
                                <cell>Blew</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph> Many hundred years ago, all verbs were inflected centrally; but,
                        when the language came to be <italic>printed</italic>, the form of
                        inflecting for past time by adding <italic>ed</italic>, became more
                        usual.</paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Person and Number.</heading>
                    <paragraph> It is plain that the pronouns or fornames <italic>I</italic>,
                            <italic>thou</italic>, <italic>he</italic>, <italic>she</italic>,
                            <italic>it</italic>, <italic>we</italic>, <italic>you</italic>, and
                            <italic>they</italic>, stand for the names of <italic>persons</italic>.
                        In order to distinguish, in <italic>grammar</italic>, these pronouns from
                        each other, different names have been given to them.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <italic>I</italic> and <italic>we</italic> are called pronouns of the
                            <italic>first</italic> or <italic>speaking person</italic>. <linebreak/>
                        <italic>Thou</italic> and <italic>you</italic> are called pronouns of the
                            <italic>second</italic> or <italic>spoken-to person</italic>. <linebreak/>
                        <italic>He</italic>, <italic>she</italic>, <italic>it</italic>, and
                            <italic>they</italic> are called pronouns of the <italic>third</italic>
                        or <italic>spoken-of person</italic>. <linebreak/>
                        <italic>We</italic> is properly not a pronoun of the first person; it is
                        properly a mixed person. It is not = <italic>I</italic> and
                            <italic>I</italic>; but <pagebreak page_no="29"/> it is =
                            <italic>I</italic> and <italic>You</italic>, or <italic>I</italic> and
                            <italic>He</italic>. <italic>You</italic> is = <italic>Thou</italic> and
                            <italic>Thou</italic>, or <italic>Thou</italic> and <italic>He</italic>.
                            <italic>They</italic> is = <italic>He</italic> and <italic>He</italic>,
                        or <italic>She</italic> and <italic>She</italic>, or <italic>It</italic> and
                            <italic>It</italic> — and so on. These different pronouns demand, then,
                        different forms of the verb to go with them. We cannot say <italic>I
                            walks</italic>, or <italic>They walkest</italic>. Again, we cannot say
                            <italic>They walks</italic>, because then we should have a pronoun in
                        the plural number going with a verb in the singular number — which would
                        never do.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> If the pronoun is Singular, the verb must be Singular. If the
                        pronoun is Plural, the verb must be Plural. If the pronoun is of the First
                        Person, the verb must be of the First Person — and so on.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> That is to say, a form of the verb that usually goes with a pronoun
                        of the second or third person, must not be put with a pronoun of first
                        person. This is all that is meant.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <list rend="simple">
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>I</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>I walk</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>Thou</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>Thou walkest</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>He</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>He walks</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>We</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>We walk</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>You</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>You walk</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walk</italic> to <italic>They</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>They walked</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>I</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>I walked</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>Thou</italic>, I
                                say, <italic>Thou walkedst</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>He</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>He walked</italic>.</item>
                            <pagebreak page_no="30"/>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>We</italic>, I say,
                                    <italic>We walked</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>You</italic>, I
                                say, <italic>You walked</italic>.</item>
                            <item>When I join <italic>walked</italic> to <italic>They</italic>, I
                                say, <italic>They walked</italic>.</item>
                        </list> You can do the same with <italic>write</italic> and
                            <italic>wrote</italic>, or any other verb.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> There is, however, one verb, which is more changed or inflected than
                        any other; and that verb is the verb which is more used than any other — the
                        verb <small_caps>Be</small_caps>. We must therefore get it up thoroughly: </paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Asserting Form</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <head>Present Time or Tense</head>
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular Number</cell>
                                <cell>Plural Number</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>1. I am</cell>
                                <cell>1. We are</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>2. Thou art</cell>
                                <cell>2. You are</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>3. He is</cell>
                                <cell>3. They are</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <head>Past Time or Tense</head>
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular Number</cell>
                                <cell>Plural Number</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>1. I was</cell>
                                <cell>1. We were</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>2. Thou wast</cell>
                                <cell>2. You were</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>3. He was</cell>
                                <cell>3. They were</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Conjunctive Form.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <head>Present Time or Tense</head>
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular Number</cell>
                                <cell>Plural Number</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 1. I be</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 1. We be</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 2. Thou be</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 2. You be</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 3. He be</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 3. They be</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="2" rows="4">
                            <head>Past Time or Tense</head>
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Singular Number</cell>
                                <cell>Plural Number</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 1. I were</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 1. We were</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 2. Thou wert</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 2. You were</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>(Though) 3. He were</cell>
                                <cell>(Though) 3. They were</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Commanding Form.</heading>
                    <paragraph> Be! </paragraph>
                    <heading level="3">Adjectival or Participial Form.</heading>
                    <paragraph>
                        <table cols="2" rows="2">
                            <row role="heading">
                                <cell>Present</cell>
                                <cell>Past</cell>
                            </row>
                            <row role="data">
                                <cell>Being</cell>
                                <cell>Been</cell>
                            </row>
                        </table>
                    </paragraph>
                </div2>
                <div2>
                    <heading level="2">Chapter V. Changes or Inflections in Adverbs.</heading>
                    <paragraph> Adverbs, like adjectives, are changed or inflected for
                        degree.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> 1. We form the Comparative by adding <italic>er</italic>. We form
                        the Superlative by adding <italic>est</italic>. As, Fast, faster,
                        fastest.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> 2. In some adverbs of two, or more than two, syllables, we prefix
                        for the Comparative <italic>more</italic>, and we prefix for the Superlative
                            <italic>most</italic>. As, Gaily, more gaily, most gaily.</paragraph>
                    <paragraph> ☞ The Sub-positive is not generally used in Adverbs.</paragraph>
                </div2>
            </div1>
            <div1 description="exercises">
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 1. — Write out twelve <italic>Names</italic>
                    of things in the school-room.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"> </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 2. — Write out twelve
                        <italic>Names</italic> of things in the play-ground.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 3. — Write out twelve
                        <italic>Names</italic> of things in the fields.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 4. — Select and write
                    out the <italic>Nouns</italic> in the following sentences: — <linebreak/> 1. The
                    pig grunts. 2. The wind blows. 3. John rode to town. 4. The seal basks in the
                    sun. 5. The fox crept along the wall. 6. The sailor laid down his oar. 7. The
                    steeple totters. 8. Loud cracks the whip. 9. The huntsman shot a hare. 10. The
                    door is open. 11. The springs bubble up. 12. Lucy stood at her door.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 5. — Select and write
                    out, in columns, the <italic>Telling Words</italic> in the following sentences:
                    — <linebreak/> 1. The fishes sport. 2. The sexton walked. 3. Sugar melts. 4.
                    Horsemen ride. 5. The church bell tolls. 6. The gamekeeper shoots. 7. The lark
                    sings. 8. Steam engines work. 9. The saw cuts. 10. An arrow kills. 11. Mushrooms
                    grow. 12. Carts rattle.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 6. — Write out, in
                    separate columns, the <italic>Nouns</italic> and <italic>Verbs</italic> in the
                    following: — <linebreak/> 1. England and Scotland form one island. 2. We make
                    gas from coal. 3. I met a little cottage girl. 4. How many sticks go to the
                    building of a crow’s nest? 5. Cromwell was the Protector of England. 6. A black
                    man has woolly hair. 7. China gives us silk. 8. Ferns as tall as palm trees once
                    grew in England. 9. Icebergs sometimes dash ships in pieces. 10. The English
                    work very hard. 11. Negroes eat the flesh of snakes and vipers.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>7. — Make twelve
                    sentences, each containing one <italic>Noun</italic> and one
                        <italic>Verb.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 8. — Write, in columns,
                    the <italic>Nouns</italic> in the following sentences: — <italic>Africa,
                        gorilla</italic>, <italic>ostrich</italic>,<italic> monkey, whale, William, </italic>
                    <pagebreak page_no="33"/>
                    <italic>Garibaldi, harts, thirst, glow, wren, Tom,</italic> and, opposite them,
                    the <italic>Telling Words</italic> which tell something about them. 1. Africa
                    abounds in buffaloes. 2. The gorilla was shot by Mr. Du Chaillu. 3. The ostrich
                    can kick like a mule. 4. The monkey sleeps in a tree. 5. The whale spouts water.
                    6. William invaded England. 7. Garibaldi, the true and modest patriot, lives in
                    Caprera. 8. Harts swim very well. 9 The thirst for vengeance glared in his eyes.
                    10. The glow from the flames lighted up the hall. 11. The wren makes its nest of
                    moss and grass. 12. Tom frightened the fox.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 9. — Write out, in separate columns, the
                        <italic>Nouns</italic>and <italic>Verbs</italic> in the following: —
                    <linebreak/> 1. The bear went across the field. 2. Go up the mountain. 2. There
                    are partridges and woodcocks in our field. 4. The dog saved many lives. 5. Robin
                    Hood was a robber. 6. The goats mounted the hill. 7. A storm arose in the
                    Atlantic. 8. Jack Horner sat in a corner. 9. The crew perished at sea 10. The
                    leopard jumped on the servant. 11. John wants to be a ploughboy. 12. The boy ran
                    to the village shop. 13. Chimney sweepers dance merrily on May-day.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 10. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Noun-marking Words</italic> in the following sentences, and
                    place opposite them the <italic>Nouns</italic> they mark: — <linebreak/> 1. Bold
                    Robin Hood was an archer good, as e’er drew bow in the merry green wood. 2. The
                    talkative parrot whistled a merry tune. 3. Bruin, the clumsy bear, went across
                    the fields, to seek the crafty fox. 4. There are no large birds of prey in Great
                    Britain, except eagles and hawks. 5. The poor children wandered up and down in
                    the dark wood. 6. A hungry wolf stood at the door of a house. 7. The angry nurse
                    threatened to put the crying child to bed. 8. A tremendous gale blew the stout
                    ship on shore. 9. The blind seal found its way to the cruel farmer’s door. 10.
                    The bubbling spring comes up beside the cottage window. 11. Margaret, the
                    milkman’s daughter, is a good and useful little girl. 12. The village children
                    played at the merry games of leap-frog, and ball, and puss in the comer. 13.
                    Little Two-shoes sat, like a busy little puss, in a corner, reading a
                    book.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 11. — Add
                        <italic>Adjectives</italic>, or <italic>Noun-marking Words,</italic> to the
                    following <italic>Nouns</italic> :— <linebreak/>
                    <italic>Terrier, room, rat, prisoner, penny</italic>, <italic>paper, ink, child,
                        fire, spider, whale, elephant.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 12. — What
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> would the following
                    <italic>Adjectives</italic>suitably mark: — <linebreak/>
                    <italic>Long, round, flat, sweet, rough, gentle, cruel,deep, green, pretty,
                        kind, square.</italic></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="34"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><italic><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 13. — Make
                        twelve sentences, each containing a Noun, a Verb, and an Adjective, about
                        the following: — Waggon, cat, traveller, rabbit, brother, negro, swan,
                        field, child, fish, dog, duckling.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 14. — Write out, in
                    separate columns, the <italic>Nouns, Verbs,</italic> and
                        <italic>Adjectives</italic> in the following; and arrange the
                        <italic>Adjectives</italic> opposite the <italic>Nouns</italic> they
                        <italic>mark,</italic> and the <italic>Verbs</italic> opposite the
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> they <italic>tell</italic> about: — <linebreak/> 1.
                    Little puss sat in a dark corner. 2. Hark! how the strong winds blow. 3. The
                    strong horse fell on the slippery ice. 4. The angry nurse beat the squalling
                    child. 5. The golden eagle is a large bird. 6. The common seal has a beau- tiful
                    dark eye. 7. The gruff billy-goat went up the steep mountain. 8. The green
                    parrot talks cleverly. 9. I heard the dogs howl in the dark, wet night. 10. The
                    greedy wolf wanted to eat the poor child. 11. After mince-pies and plum pudding
                    come black draughts. 12. The poor boy went through the dark forest. 13. The
                    cruel farmer put out the seal’s eyes. 14. The speckled hen, black and white,
                    looked like a widow in half mourning.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 15. — Add
                        <italic>Telling Words</italic> to the following <italic>Nouns</italic>: — <linebreak/>
                    <italic>Hawk, battle, horse, river, bird, cage, cuckoo, snow, tree, gardener,
                        owl, cook.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 16. — Place suitable
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> before the following <italic>Telling Words:
                    </italic>— R<italic>un, creep, cut, see, jump, write, roll, flow, devour,
                        attach, shoot</italic>, <italic>grind.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 17. — Select the
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> and <italic>Verbs</italic> from the following list,
                    and join them so as to make sense: — <linebreak/>
                    <italic>Fast, horse, weasel, croak, sit, boy, river, pick, tear, stand, maiden,
                        sow</italic>, <italic>rat, wide, rich, raven, think, run, hen, gnaw, bite,
                        overflow, tall, tailor, captain, wonderful, mind.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 18. — Make twelve
                    sentences, each containing a <italic>Noun,</italic> an
                        <italic>Adjective,</italic> and a <italic>Verb.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 19. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Verb-modifying Words</italic> in the following sentences,
                    and, opposite them, the <italic>Verbs</italic> they modify: — <linebreak/> 1.
                    The man drove fast. 2. The hyena howled fiercely. 8. The train ran quickly down
                    the incline. 4. The clock soon stopped. 5. Meg Muggins quickly picked up her
                    basket. 6. Robinson kindly invited Friday to dinner. 7. The swan flew swiftly
                    over the lake. 8. The little boy skates well. 9. The miners shouted vehemently
                    to the man at the windlass. 10. The gorilla was mortally wounded. 11. The dog
                    shook the rat fiercely. 12. The lads behaved awkwardly at the party.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="35"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 20. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Adjective-modifying Words</italic> in the following
                    sentences, and, opposite them, the <italic>Adjectives</italic> they modify: —
                    <linebreak/> 1. Poor Tom is very cold. 2. The ostrich is a remarkably swift
                    runner. 3. The Marquis of Westminster is extremely rich. 4. Too early rising is
                    not good for the health. 5. I am truly glad to see that yon are well. 6. This
                    cheese is quite green. 7. Dodd staid out a very long time skating, and his
                    mother became exceedingly uneasy about him. 8. Dan is a really clever fellow. 9.
                    The fox, soon weary with the run, was caught and despatched by the hounds. 10.
                    The ugly duckling was too young to understand the world. 11. My dog is rather
                    lame. 12. The rats thought the honey awfully nice.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 21. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Adverb-modifying Words</italic> in the following sentences,
                    and, opposite them, the <italic>Ad- verbs</italic> they modify: — <linebreak/>
                    1. Mr. Dobbs spoke very slowly. 2. Arthur did not like the sousing, and the
                    medicine still less. 3. John returned almost directly. 4. Deerfoot ran
                    exceedingly fast over the course. 5. They danced quite merrily through the room.
                    6. The time passed too quickly. 7. He visited the house rather often. 8. The
                    glow of the sun-set was seen no longer. 9. He is almost always ill. 10. They
                    ride extremely well. 11. We can jump much further than you. 12. The pony gallops
                    twice faster than the cob.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 22. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Adverbs</italic> in the following sentences, and place
                    opposite them the <italic>Verbs, Ad- jectives,</italic> or
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic> which they modify: — <linebreak/> 1. Fairy rings
                    are very beautiful. 2. The two ships' companies drifted away into the frozen
                    seas. 8. The aloe blooms only once every hundred years. 4. The Warrior sails
                    very fast. 5. Now, the south wind softly blows. 6. How many sticks will it take
                    to reach the moon? 7. One, if it be long enough. 8. Whalemen often see polar
                    bears daily, nay, sometimes hourly. 9. Sir William Armstrong says that his brass
                    guns will never wear out. 10. Are you quite well, John? 11. Jemmy Wright shaves
                    as well as any man in England — almost, not quite. 23. — Make twelve sentences,
                    each with a <italic>Noun,</italic> a <italic>Verb</italic>, and an
                        <italic>Adverb.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 24. — Make twelve
                    sentences, each with a <italic>Noun,</italic>an <italic>Adjective,</italic> a
                        <italic>Verb,</italic> and an <italic>Adverb.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 25. — Add suitable
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic> to the following <italic>Adjectives</italic>: —
                        <pagebreak page_no="36"/>
                    <italic>Dark, tall, easy, clever, clear, hard, able, glad, wonderful, slow,
                        willing, long, steady.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 26. — Put suitable
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic> to the following
                        <italic>Verbs</italic>:<italic>Jump</italic>, <italic>reach</italic>,
                        <italic>run</italic>, <italic>look</italic>, <italic>write</italic>,
                        <italic>walk</italic>, <italic>eat</italic>, <italic>play, hunt,
                        dance</italic>, <italic>see</italic>,<italic>sit.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 27. — Write out, in
                    columns, the <italic>Adverbs</italic> in the following sentences, and, opposite
                    them, the <italic>Verbs, Adjectives,</italic>or <italic>Adverbs</italic> which
                    they modify: — <linebreak/> 1. The sailor mounted instantly to see the light. 2.
                    The poor lion gradually declined, and soon died. 8. The steeple is scarcely
                    three hundred feet high. 4. It is very pleasant in the cool shade. 5. The
                    elephant can draw logs quite easily which twenty men could not move. 6. On the
                    mountain, the snow falls so thickly that one soon gets blinded. 7. Where did you
                    get that very beautiful ship? 8. The dikes, in Holland, have been almost all
                    carried away by the very high floods. 9. The ship was nearly ashore when the
                    sailor mounted the shrouds. 10. The boy cried out, "I am quite right, it is a
                    turkey's egg." 11. Said Bruin, slyly, "Help me at once to some of that honey,
                    and I will be your slave for ever." "Indeed,” said the fox,
                    sneeringly.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 28. — Make twelve
                    sentences, containing the following <italic>Adverbs: </italic><italic>Scarcely, lately, quickly, very, disgracefully, sadly, soon,
                        too,</italic>
                    <italic>quite, nearly, seldom, clumsily</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 29. — Write out, in
                    separate columns, the <italic>Adverbs </italic>which modify (1)
                        <italic>Verbs,</italic> those which modify (2) <italic>Adjectives,</italic>
                    and those which modify (3) <italic>Adverbs,</italic> in the following: —
                    <linebreak/> 1. The ship sailed very swiftly to the Polar Seas in quest of
                    whales. 2. Bruin, the clumsily shaped bear, sent for Reynard, the too cunning
                    fox, to come and hunt. 3. The sportsman leapt quickly from the tree, ran rapidly
                    across the valley, and soon gained the wood. 4. The surly lion scratched the
                    poor child very dreadfully with his paw. 5. Reynard the fox came trotting up,
                    with his tail still more draggled than before. 6. Three billy-goats again went
                    up the mountain, to make themselves fat. 7. A goat had a pretty kid, which she
                    loved too dearly. 8. A most tremendous gale blew the ship on shore. 9. The
                    bubbling spring still comes up beside the cottage window. 10. She walked too
                    quickly to the farm- house, and consequently caught cold. 11. James Watt made a
                    very great improvement upon the steam engine. 12. Griper, the blind man’s dog,
                    was very savage; he often attacked little children.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 30. — Write out, in
                    separate columns, the <italic>Nouns, Adjectives</italic>,
                        <italic>Verbs,</italic> and <italic>Adverbs</italic> in following:—
                        <pagebreak page_no="37"/> 1. Once on a time a beautiful seal lived in a
                    farmer's house in Ireland. 2. Away went Bruin the bear after the cunning fox. 3.
                    The parrot whistled shrilly, "I'm afloat, I'm afloat, and the rover is free." 4.
                    Merrily, merrily goes the bark, before the gale she bounds. 5. The children's
                    feet pattered slowly over the icy road. 6. Huge trees, of wonderful form, stand
                    far out in the deep water. 7. The real name of little Goody Two-shoes was
                    Margery Meanwell. 8. Far, far away, there is a fine country, full of rocky
                    mountains and crystal caves. 9. The crows thought it was a dangerous thing — a
                    very dangerous thing indeed. 10. There once lived in a farm yard, an old cock,
                    whose name was Crowell. 11. Farmer Meanwell had quite an extensive farm, and
                    good wheat fields, and immensely large flocks of sheep. 12. Poor Tommy, little
                    Margery's brother, had, indeed, two shoes, but Margery had but one.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 31. — Make twelve
                    sentences, four with <italic>Adverbs </italic>modifying <italic>Verbs</italic>,
                    four with <italic>Adverbs</italic> modifying <italic>Adjectives</italic>, and
                    four with <italic>Adverbs</italic> modifying
                    <italic>Adverbs</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 32. — Fill up the
                    spaces with <italic>Adverbs:</italic> — 1. They sailed <gap/> to the Polar Seas.
                    2. The sailor went aloft <gap/> to see the light. 3. The steeple is <gap/> three
                    hundred feet high. 4. Two goats had <gap/> fed together, in a meadow. 5. The
                    ships <gap/> met again. 6. A goat had a pretty kid, which she loved <gap/>. 7.
                    <gap/> upon a time a s wallow flew down upon a sheep's back. 8. "Dear mother,"
                    said a little fish, "pray is that <gap/> a fly?" 9. The bird was <gap/> as
                    pretty as Poll, nay, prettier. 10. There was <gap/> a boy who had a dog called
                    Griper. 11. The crows thought it a dangerous thing, a <gap/> dangerous thing.
                    12. The children's feet pattered <gap/> over the icy road.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 33. — Select the
                        <italic>Noun-connecting Words</italic> from the following sentences: —
                    <linebreak/> 1. The woodman carried the axe on his shoulder. 2. Mrs. Styles
                    travelled with twelve trunks. 3. The poor woman in the cottage was dangerously
                    ill. 4. Robert leapt into the river. 5. The bell-man spread the news over the
                    town. 6. The man with the wooden leg is a sailor. 7. He is going to cut up his
                    leg into lucifer matches, and buy a cork one. 8. The tiger tears the deer with
                    its strong, sharp claws. 9. Silk is the web of a caterpillar. 10. Amsterdam
                    stands on wooden piles. 11. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! 12. I
                    saw Jones with his cousin.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 34. — Connect the
                    following <italic>Nouns</italic> and <italic>Pronouns </italic>by suitable
                        <italic>Noun-connecting Words: —</italic>
                    <pagebreak page_no="38"/> 1. The cook went <gap/> the kitchen. 2. Three goats
                    climbed <gap/> the mountain's side. 3. <gap/> a barn he used to frolic, long
                    time ago. 4. A sportsman and his son were <gap/> the country, shooting. 5. Lucy
                    burst <gap/> a flood of tears. 6. The sportsman went <gap/> me, to teach me to
                    shoot. 7. The poor creatures ran up <gap/> us crying. 8. The lion-killer walked
                    <gap/> me as far as the waterfall. 9. A man went, one day, <gap/> the house of a
                    rich squire. 10. The servants all laughed <gap/> him. 11. A swallow flew down
                    <gap/> a sheep's back, to steal some wool. 12. The fisherman put the perch
                    <gap/> his basket, and walked away. 13. "Somebody has been sitting <gap/> my
                    chair," said the great bear.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 35. — Write, in columns, the
                        <italic>Prepositions</italic>, with the <italic>Nouns</italic> and
                        <italic>Pronouns</italic> they connect, in Exercise 34.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 36. — <lg met="" rhyme="">
                        <l>In the moonlight the sheperds,</l>
                        <l>Soft-lulled by the rills,</l>
                        <l>Lie wrapt in their blankets,</l>
                        <l>Asleep on the hills.</l>
                    </lg> In the above sentence, the noun <italic>sheperds</italic> is connected
                    with <italic>moonlight</italic> by the preposition <italic>in</italic>, with
                        <italic>rills</italic> by the preposition <italic>by</italic>, with
                        <italic>blankets</italic> by <italic>in</italic>, and <italic>hills</italic>
                    by <italic>on</italic>. Thus: — <table cols="3" rows="5">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">Shepherds</ed_note></cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">Preposition</ed_note></cell>
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition">Noun</ed_note></cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell><small_caps>Shepherds</small_caps></cell>
                            <cell>in</cell>
                            <cell>moonlight</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition"
                                    ><small_caps>Shepherds</small_caps></ed_note></cell>
                            <cell>by</cell>
                            <cell>rillst</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition"
                                    ><small_caps>Shepherds</small_caps></ed_note></cell>
                            <cell>in</cell>
                            <cell>blankets</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell><ed_note type="addition"
                                    ><small_caps>Shepherds</small_caps></ed_note></cell>
                            <cell>on</cell>
                            <cell>hills</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                    <graphic image_id="1" url="images/0_1.jpg"
                        desc="Exercise 36. Prepositions with Sheperds" filetype="jpg"/> Show the
                    connection between the different Nouns in the same way, in the following
                    sentences: — <linebreak/> 1. The steam-engine at the Mint is set a-going at nine
                    o'clock. 2. Some fishes travel by land from one place to another. 3. In a little
                    paddock some horses are playing at follow-my-leader. 4. Camels walk through the
                    heavy sands in the deserts of Arabia. 5. Night, with her cold fingers, sprinkles
                    moonbeams on the sea-waste. 6. A captain bold, of Halifax, who lived in country
                    quarters — (Is this a sentence, or complete statement?) 7. At Woolwich, the
                    several parts of a wheel are put together with one squeeze. 8. My coat is all in
                    tatters, and my hat — is at the hatter's. 9. The man with the cocked hat stood
                    on a tub, speaking to the noisy crowd. 10. In the reign of Henry II., from
                    Temple Bar to the village of Westminster was a country road. 11. The cart, with
                    the Red King's body in it, rattled through the New Forest. 12. The cock and the
                    hen came originally from the east. 19. The negroes in many parts of the island
                    of Jamaica are lazy.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 37. — Make twelve sentences, each containing
                    one <italic>Preposition.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>38. — Arrange the <italic>Prepositions</italic>
                    in the following sentences in four columns — putting in the first column those
                    which join a <italic>Noun</italic> and a <italic>Noun</italic>, in the second
                    those which join a <italic>Noun</italic> and a <italic>Pronoun</italic>, in the
                    third those which join a <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a <italic>Noun</italic>,
                    and in the fourth those which join a <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Pronoun</italic>: — <linebreak/> 1. He came to me. 2. The vessel
                    sailed to the polar seas. 3. Bruin the bear sent for me. 4. The sportsman leapt
                    from the tree, ran across the valley, and into the wood. 5. They ran up to us
                    all in tears. 6. It scratched the poor child with its paws. 7. Reynard the fox
                    trotted up to her, with his tail lifted on high. 8. Three billy-goats went up a
                    mountain's side. 9. I ran to him with my clothes all in tatters. 10. She walked
                    to the farm-house with her cloak over her arm. 11. The lion stalked towards him,
                    snarling fearfully. 12. The canary flew to the little girl, and began to eat out
                    of her hand.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>39. — Make twelve
                    sentences, each with a <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> and a <italic>Noun</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>40. — Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a <italic>Noun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Pronoun.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>41. — Make twelve
                    sentences, each with a <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a
                        <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a <italic>Noun.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>42. — Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Pronoun.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>43. — Write out, in columns, the
                        <italic>Prepositions</italic> in the following, and place on each side of
                    them the words they connect: — <linebreak/> 1. Wolves were on their track, and
                    almost dashed against the door of the carriage. 2. Robin Hood was born in the
                    reign of Henry II., at Locksley, in the county of Nottingham. 3. One morning,
                    away went Brain the bear across the fields, in quest of Reynard the fox. 4. Up
                    the airy mountain, down the rushy glen, we daren't go a hunting, for fear of
                    little men. 5. The sailors went trooping after each other in Indian file, with
                    heavy loads on their backs. 6. According to promise the man came in the evening.
                    7. There are several hares and pheasants in that coppice. 8. The captain, amidst
                    the hurry and confusion of the scene, preserved his calmness. 9. There are no
                    large birds of prey in this country except the eagle and a few kinds of birds of
                    the hawk tribe. 10. Far up the Great St. Bernard, one of those high mountains of
                    the Alps, stands a famous convent.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="40"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <italic><small_caps>EXERCISE</small_caps> 44. — Make sentences with the
                        following Pre- positions in them: —Of, with, in, on, at, about, under, over,
                        by, into, without, above.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>45. — Make sentences with the following
                        <italic>Pre- positions</italic> in them: — <italic>Across, against, along,
                        around, before, behind, down, except, upon, below, beneath,
                    besides</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>46. — Select <italic>Conjunctions</italic> from
                    the following: — <linebreak/> 1. The stag is found in France, and so is the wolf
                    2. The snipe is a small bird, but flies quickly. 3. Notwithstanding the ice, the
                    whalers attacked and killed the seals. 4. Although the birds of Australia have
                    beautiful plumage, they have very dis- cordant voices. 5. Gentle earthquakes
                    often occur in England, but are oftener felt at Comrie, in Scotland. 6. The
                    failure of the wine crop is a disastrous event, for the farmers depend upon it
                    for a living. 7. When we see animals change their colours in the winter, we must
                    believe that the alteration is best for them. 8. Willows are weak, but they bind
                    other wood. 9. Although Columbus really discovered America, yet it was known to
                    the Northmen some hundreds of years before. 10. London to-day is taller by some
                    fifteen feet than the London of the Romans was.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>47. — Arrange, in
                    separate columns, the <italic>Preposi- tions</italic> and
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic> in the following: — <linebreak/> 1. In winter
                    the hare and the ptarmigan change the colour of their coats. 2. The Romans
                    possessed Britain for more than four hundred years, but they had to leave it at
                    last. 3. The mistletoe and holly now reign in every British house- hold, yet
                    very little is known about the rise of their sovereignty. 3. The sloth in Ceylon
                    moves slowly, and comes unawares upon a bird. 5. Elephants and seals are shot
                    for the sake of their ivory. 6. There are neither snakes nor vipers in Ireland,
                    for St. Patrick banished them all. 7. When the pools in Ceylon dry up, the chub
                    set out on their travels in search of water. 8. The arrow rebounded from the
                    boy's back as-if it had struck upon a rock. 9. Doctors themselves are not of
                    more importance than nurses are. 10. <lg met="" rhyme=""><l>If the man who
                            turnips cries</l>
                        <l>Cry not when his father dies,</l>
                        <l>'Tis a proof that he would rather</l>
                        <l>Have a turnip than his father.</l></lg> 11. There are more than 80,000
                    pipes of wine in the London docks. 12. Lime injures the coats of the stomach
                    when we drink the water that contains it.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>48. — Write out, in a
                    column, the <italic>Conjunctions</italic> in the following sentences: —
                        <pagebreak page_no="41"/> 1. I will stay at home, if you go to fish. 2.
                    Cherry pie is very nice, and so is currant wine, but I must wear my plain brown
                    gown, and never go too fine. 3. The wolf met the bear, and mocked him, because
                    he always carried his head so low. 4. The wolf would have eaten the little girl
                    up, but there were some wood-cutters hard by, so he thought better of it, and
                    didn't. 5. Give me a cake and a pat of butter, for my granny is ill. 6. The wasp
                    hummed his thanks, as he hummed from flower to flower. 7. The fish will not be
                    caught, unless the nets are mended. 8. Tell the green hunts- man, if you meet
                    him on the way, there’s game in the wind. 9. Thus wandered these poor children,
                    till death did end their grief. 10. I will bring the man here, since you think
                    so. 11. Robin Hood, although he was a robber, never injured poor people or
                    women. 12. The parrot, Nina, could whistle "Hearts of oak" better than any
                    sailor on board could.</paragraph>
                <paragraph>
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>49. — Make twelve sentences, each containing a
                        <italic>Conjunction.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise5</small_caps>0. — Write out, in columns, the
                        <italic>Prepositions</italic> and <italic>Conjunctions</italic> in the
                    following: — <linebreak/> 1. The seal delights to gambol in the water and is
                    fond of basking in the sun. 2. This world is large, but there are others which
                    are larger. 3. In Poland the wolves are not so big as they are in the South of
                    Russia. 4. Both mincepies and plum pudding are good at Christmas. 5. You could
                    see this little nut, Monkey, though your eyes were shut. 6. We should get no
                    tin, if the Cornishmen did not dig in their mines. 7. Tar at first is dark red,
                    but in a little time it becomes black. 8. The captain perished, but the sailors
                    of the Lap- wing were saved. 9. You yet may see the fawn at play, the hare upon
                    the green, but the sweet face of Lucy Grey will never more be seen.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>51. — Write out, in separate columns, the
                        <italic>Nouns</italic>, <italic>Adjectives</italic>, <italic>Verbs</italic>,
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic>, <italic>Prepositions</italic>, and
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic> in the following: — <linebreak/> A young seal
                    once lived in the house of a farmer on the west coast of Ireland. The creature
                    was mild and gentle, and the family loved it dearly. In summer its delight was
                    to bask in the sun; in winter, to be before the fire, or, if it was per- mitted,
                    to creep into a large oven in the kitchen. In spring a strange kind of disease
                    attacked the cattle, many of which died. An old woman told the farmer that his
                    cattle would never re- cover, unless he put out the seal's eyes and turned it
                    adrift. The silly fellow consented to the cruel act; they carried the poor
                    animal away and pitched it into the sea. On the eighth night <pagebreak
                        page_no="42"/> after it had left, a tremendous gale arose in the Atlantic,
                    and, in the pauses of the storm, the family could at times hear a low wailing
                    noise at the door. Next morning they found the seal dead on the
                    threshold.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>52. — Make sentences with the following
                        <italic>Con- junctions</italic> in them: — <italic>Because, if, and, for,
                        therefore, wherefore, although, than, though, unless.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>53. — Arrange in
                    separate columns the <italic>Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions,
                        and Conjunctions</italic> in the following story: —<italic> </italic>An Arab
                    had lost his way in the desert. Two days had he wandered about without finding
                    anything to eat; and he was now in danger of perishing of hunger. Suddenly he
                    saw one of those pools of water at which travellers water their camels, and he
                    ran up to it as fast as his tired limbs could carry him. What was his delight to
                    see, lying upon the green bank of the pool, a leathern bag. He was sure that it
                    con- tained food. He took it up, while his heart beat faster and faster with
                    expectation. "Dates! I hope," he cried. "Nuts! I think!!" "Pearls! by the beard
                    of the Prophet!!!" and the poor Arab sank fainting upon the sand.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>54. — Select the <italic>Pronouns</italic> from
                    the following story: — A drop of rain, one solitary drop, fell from a cloud into
                    the sea, and was swallowed by the enormous waste of waters in the bosom of the
                    Atlantic. Lost in the depths of the ocean, the little drop said to itself, "Ah!
                    what a tiny thing am I in this great world of water!" It happened that just at
                    this moment an oyster opened its shelly mouth, and swallowed the water drop. It
                    lay a long time in its pearly home. By degrees it ripened into a beautiful
                    pearl. At length it was found by a diver. He was in ecstacies with its beauty,
                    and gave it to a lady who knew him. She had it set in a bracelet; it became her
                    magnificently; and she prized it above all her other jewels.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>55. — Make sentences with the following
                        <italic>Pro- nouns</italic> in them: —<italic>Thou, him, her, them, it, he,
                        she, me, we, us, thee, you, him, his, they, its.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>56. — Substitute <italic>Pronouns</italic> for
                    some of the <italic>Nouns </italic>in the following story: — A poor labourer who
                    grew turnips in the garden of the labourer, found among the turnips a
                        turnip<footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">For this
                            word <italic>one</italic> must be used, which — though really a
                            numbering ad- jective — is <italic>used</italic> as a kind of
                            pronoun.</paragraph></footnote> of immense size. <pagebreak page_no="43"
                    /> The labourer carried the turnip to the squire, who, as a reward for the
                    industry of the labourer, gave the labourer two pounds. A widow in the same
                    village, who was well-to-do in the world, but very greedy, heard of the affair,
                    and said to the widow that it would be no bad plan to offer the gentleman the
                    first of the widow’s sheep, for, said the widow, if the gentleman has given two
                    pounds for a turnip, the gentleman will surely give much more for a sheep. The
                    widow accordingly took the widow's sheep to the squire, and begged the gentleman
                    to accept the sheep. The squire immediately saw the widow's selfishness, and
                    refused to accept of the present. As the widow entreated the squire, the squire
                    answered that as the widow forced the squire to accent the widow's present, the
                    squire would give the widow something in return, which cost twice as much as the
                    value of the widow's sheep. So the squire presented the widow with the enormous
                    turnip.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>57. — Substitute <italic>Nouns</italic> for
                        <italic>Pronouns</italic> in the follow- ing fable: — A wolf, roving about
                    in search of food, passed by a door where a child was crying and its nurse
                    chiding it. As he stood listening, he heard her tell it to leave off crying or
                    she would throw it to him. So, thinking she would be as good as her word, he
                    hung about the house, in expectation of a capital supper. But as evening came
                    on, and it became quiet, he again heard her say that it was now good, and that
                    if he came for it they would beat him to death. He, hearing this, trotted home
                    as fast as he could.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>58. — Substitute the <italic>Nouns</italic> for
                    which <italic>Pronouns </italic>stand in the following story: — A sailor had a
                    parrot. To all the questions they asked it, it answered "There is no doubt about
                    it." <footnote indicator="Asterisk"><paragraph type="footnote">The pronoun
                                <italic>it</italic> stands in this sentence for some such noun as
                                <italic>"the fact."</italic></paragraph></footnote> One day he took
                    it to the market to sell it, and fixed the price at twenty pounds. A woman asked
                    the parrot if it was worth twenty pounds? It replied, "There is no doubt about
                    it." She, delighted with the bird, bought it, and carried it home. Some time
                    after she repented of her bargain, and said aloud to herself that she was a fool
                    for having thrown her money away! "There is no doubt about it," sang out the
                    bird.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>59. — Substitute <italic>Pronouns</italic> for
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> in the fol- lowing: — Long, long ago, a boy set out
                    to see the world. The boy wanted very much to see the world. So the boy left
                    home and walked on till the boy met a woman. The woman asked the <folio
                        folio_no="D"/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="44"/> boy where the boy was going. The boy answered that the
                    boy was going to see the world. The world is large, said the woman, but the
                    woman will go with the boy to see the world. Well, the woman and the boy set
                    out, and the woman and boy's way led through a dark forest. In the forest there
                    was a gloomy den where a cruel wolf lived. The wolf came rushing out when the
                    wolf heard the footsteps of the woman and boy, tore the woman and boy to pieces,
                    and the cubs of the wolf devoured the woman and boy. So the woman and boy did
                    not see the world after all.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>60. — Make the following sentences into a con-
                    tinuous story: — <linebreak/> A bear was bred in the wilds of Siberia. The bear
                    thought the bear would like to see the world. So the bear travelled from forest
                    to forest, and from one country to another. One day the bear came by chance into
                    a farmer's yard. The bear saw a hen drinking by the side of a pool. At every sip
                    the hen turned up the head of the hen to the sky. The bear asked the hen the
                    reason. The hen told the bear that turning up the head to the sky was the way of
                    the hen for returning thanks to heaven. Here the bear burst into a fit of
                    laughter. The bear mocked the hen. At this the cock, with the cock's wonted
                    boldness, chided the bear thus: The cock thinks the bear a fool for laughing at
                    the hen. The hen shows the hen's piety in that way. The bear should not be rude
                    and mock the hen. The hen and the cock both request the bear to go away
                    quietly.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>61. — Parse the words in the following story,
                    according to the following model: — <linebreak/>
                    <table cols="2" rows="10">
                        <row>
                            <cell>John</cell>
                            <cell>a noun, because it is a name.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>went</cell>
                            <cell>a verb, because it is a telling word, and tells some- thing about
                                    <italic>John</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>to</cell>
                            <cell>a preposition, because it connects the nouns <italic>John</italic>
                                and <italic>town</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>the</cell>
                            <cell>an adjective, because it is a marking word, and marks
                                    <italic>town</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>old</cell>
                            <cell>an adjective, because it marks <italic>town</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>town</cell>
                            <cell>a noun, because it is a name.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>and</cell>
                            <cell>a conjunction, because it joins the sentences <italic>John
                                    went</italic> and <italic>John bought</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>bought</cell>
                            <cell>a verb, because it is a telling word, and tells some- thing about
                                    <italic>John.</italic>
                            </cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>two</cell>
                            <cell>an adjective, because it marks the noun
                                <italic>rabbits</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>rabbits</cell>
                            <cell>a noun, because it is a name.</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table> A donkey, a dog, a cat, and a cock were once travelling together. When
                    it became dark, they saw a light in a cottage <pagebreak page_no="45"/> some
                    distance off. So they made their way up to it, looked throngh the window, and
                    saw several robbers sitting at table. Well, they laid a plan to secure all the
                    victuals to themselves. The donkey put his forefeet on the window sill, the dog
                    mounted on his back, on his shoulders sprang the cat, and the cock flew on the
                    cat's head. Then the ass brayed and the dog barked, the cat mewed and the cock
                    crowed "cock-a-doodle- doo." All this so frightened the robbers that they rushed
                    out of the house and ran off as hard as they could, leaving everything behind
                    them.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>62. — Make twelve sentences, each containing
                    the seven kinds of words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>63. — Write out, in columns, the seven
                    different kinds of words in the following: — In the pleasant valley of Ashton
                    lived an old woman. She had a small, neat cottage, and not a weed was visible in
                    her garden. She depended for support chiefly on her garden — which contained
                    several strawberry-beds, and two small borders for flowers. The pinks and roses
                    she made nosegays of, and sold them at Bristol. She did not send her
                    strawberries to market, because many people came, in the summer-time, from
                    Bristol, and ate strawberries and cream in her little garden.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>64. — Make twelve sentences, each containing
                    the seven kinds of words.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>65. — State in which of the following sentences
                    the following words are <italic>Nouns</italic>, and in which they are
                        <italic>Adjec- tives: Round, level, good, black, white, green, living, fat:
                    </italic><linebreak/> 1. The cheese is quite round. 2. The butcher sold me a
                    large round of beef. 3. The moor is one long, dreary level. 4. The ground we
                    play cricket on is not perfectly level. 5. Telford, the engineer, was a good and
                    clever man. 6. It is better to do good than to wish for good. 7. President
                    Lincoln has been much bothered about the blacks. 8. The black ox is not so large
                    as the white one. 9. The man turned up the whites of his eyes. 10. The country
                    is no longer green. 11. The boys play in the evening on the village-green. 12.
                    Tom Jones finds it hard to pick up a living. 13. A living dog is sometimes not
                    so good as a dead lion. 14. The sheep is very fat. 15. Fat is used to make
                    candles.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>66. — State in which of the following sentences
                    the following words are <italic>Nouns,</italic> and in which they are
                        <italic>Verbs: Round, command, cure, breakfast, hunt, fly, bite: — </italic>
                    1. We can round the lake in two hours. 2. Our Christmas- -time has been one
                    round of amusements and fun. 8. We command <pagebreak page_no="46"/> you to do
                    this. 4. The sailor refused to obey the cap- tain’s command. 5. His cure was
                    very slow and tedious. 6. The workmen must have breakfast before we breakfast.
                    7. The hunt was short and exciting. 8. We hunt every day in the season. 9. The
                    common fly can walk on the roof. 10. Birds fly more steadily than bats. 11. The
                    dog recovered of the bite. 12. Cats bite and scratch furiously, when
                    irritated.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>67. — State what the following words are in
                    each of the following sentences: <italic>Round, for, still, only, pay, race,
                        run, people, evil, desire, fancy</italic>: — <linebreak/> 1. We will run
                    round the ring four times. 2. I gave him sixpence for the plant. 3. I won't go,
                    for I have been ordered to stay here. 4. Still waters run deep. 5. Johnnie is
                    still sickly and weak. 6. Jesus stilled the waves. 7. He was the only man in the
                    room. 8. The general has only two horses. 9. The captain offered to increase his
                    pay. 10. The race lasted two hours. 11. The horses raced over the moor. 12. The
                    native people of New Zealand are a long-headed race. 13. The Saxons have peopled
                    North America. 14. The evil is done. 15. The evil deed could not remain hid. 16.
                    I have a strong desire to go to Canada. 17. The officers desire their men to
                    march to London. 18. The dog had a great fancy for the horse. 19. I fancy you
                    will find him there.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>68. — State in which of
                    the following sentences the following words are <italic>Adverbs,</italic> and in
                    which they are <italic>Adjec- tives: Fast, quick, ill, well, little, only,
                        worse, deep,pretty</italic>: — <linebreak/> 1. Deerfoot is a very fast
                    runner. 2. The locomotive can run faster than the race-horse. 3. Run quick! 4.
                    This is not a quick train. 5. The sailor was ill and in bed. 6. He has done the
                    work ill. 7. John writes well. 8. Mary was quite well. 9. I little expected to
                    see Smith there. 10. The horse carried the little boys safely. 11. He is an only
                    son. 12. He gave me only ten apples. 13. The patient is worse. 14. Bob Stores
                    rode worse than John Gilpin. 15. We must plough deep in the deep, stiff clay.
                    16. That is a very pretty horse. 17. It is pretty hard to climb that
                    hill.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise69.</small_caps>— Add <italic>Verbs</italic> to the
                    following <italic>Nouns</italic> and <italic>Pro- nouns: He, John, she, Mary,
                        ploughman, cat, grass, they, it, we, cow, book</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>70. — Add <italic>Nouns</italic> or
                        <italic>Pronouns</italic> to the following <italic>Verbs: Run, jump, walks,
                        eats, finds, see, hobble, fly, tell.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>71. — Add <italic>Nouns</italic> to the
                    following <italic>Adjectives: Green, round, square, long, lame, awkward,
                        beautiful, nice, sweet, old </italic>.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="47"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>72. — Work the following like Exercise36: — 1.
                    All the little birds had laid their heads under their wings, sleeping in feather
                    beds. 2. Mr. Smith talked on that subject with Mr. Robinson in the mail train,
                    on the way from Bristol. 3. The labourer fell with his load from the ladder,
                    through the scaffolding, into a deep pit. 4. That host with their banners at
                    sunset were seen. 5. The house he built is on a hill, near a wood, beside three
                    elm trees. 6. Punch stood, in a deep study, on the stage, with his staff in his
                    hand. 7. The swallows are in their nests with their young ones. 8. Walking up to
                    the house, he climbed on a tree, and looked through the window, but saw no one.
                    9. The knight, with his vizor up, in a chain suit of mail, and with his lance in
                    rest, rode into the lists.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>73. — Write out the
                    following sentences, and state when the words in italics are
                        <italic>Verbs,</italic> when <italic>Nouns,</italic> when <italic>Ad-
                        jectives,</italic> when <italic>Prepositions,</italic> and when
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic>: — <linebreak/> 1. We <italic>salt</italic>
                    fish with <italic>salt,</italic> and so make them <italic>salt.</italic> 2. Tom
                    can <italic>jump</italic> a long <italic>jump.</italic> 3. We took a long
                        <italic>walk.</italic> 4. The people <italic>rest</italic> on the day of
                        <italic>rest.</italic> 5. All the sailors of the Cygnet deserted,
                        <italic>save</italic> six. 6. God <italic>save</italic> the Queen! 7. The
                        <italic>master</italic> was unable to <italic>master</italic> his men. 8. He
                        <italic>works</italic> very hard at his <italic>work.</italic> 9. The
                    government will <italic>man</italic> the navy with great care; and every
                        <italic>man</italic> who enters will receive £6 bounty. 10. We had a long
                        <italic>run</italic> on the beach. 11. You <italic>run</italic> faster than
                    I. 12. What a dreadful <italic>bore</italic> Sir Peter Longjaw is! 13. The
                    speeches <italic>bore</italic> the audience extremely.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>74. — Make sentences in which the following
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic> will be added to <italic>Adjectives: Quite, very,
                        remarkably, ill, worse, more, extremely, awfully, too.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>75. — Make sentences in
                    which the following <italic>Adverbs</italic> will modify <italic>Verbs:
                        Remarkably, worse, abominably, entirely, fully, well, ill, virtuously,
                        mildly</italic>.<italic> </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>76. — Make sentences in
                    which the following <italic>Adverbs</italic> will modify <italic>Adverbs: Too,
                        quite, still, very, almost, entirely, less, more.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>77. — State when the following words, — dear,
                    cheap, close, hard, high, late, long, load, pretty, right, short, enough, little
                    — are used as <italic>adjectives</italic> and when as
                        <italic>adverbs</italic>;<italic> </italic>and, when they are
                        ad<italic>jectives,</italic> place opposite to them, in columns, the nouns
                    they mark, when <italic>adverbs</italic>, place opposite them the verbs or
                    adjectives or adverbs they modify: — <linebreak/> 1. The merchant sells cloth at
                    a very dear rate. 2. I bought my cart very cheap. 3. Don't write so close! 4.
                    The room was ill ventilated and very close. 5. The ladies strove hard to
                        <pagebreak page_no="48"/> ascend the hill. 6. John is a hard taskmaster. 7.
                    It was blowing very hard that night. 8. His heart beat high to hear the news. 9
                    Tommie was standing on a very high wall. 10. They arrived too late even for the
                    late train. 11. Have you waited long? 12. The procession was a mile long. 13.
                    The boy speaks too loud. 14. We heard a loud noise from the hall. 15. That is a
                    pretty good book. 16. The boys read pretty well. 17. He dropped right on his
                    left hand. 18. The short man stopped short in the middle. 19. Mr. Smith knows
                    that well enough. 20. He did not give the horse corn enough. 21. Little did he
                    think he would ever see his little boy again.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>78. — Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a <italic>Noun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Noun.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>79. — Make twelve Sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Preposi- tion</italic> connecting a <italic>Noun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Pronoun.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>80. — Insert fitting
                        <italic>Prepositions</italic> in the blank spaces: — 1. This is the return
                    he made me <gap/> my attention <gap/> his business <gap/> his severe illness. 2.
                    I spent six months <gap/> this house <gap/> my uncle. 3. The river flows <gap/>
                    high banks covered <gap/> flowers. 4. They fell <gap/> the river <gap/> the
                    deepest part. 5. It happened <gap/> the ball, just as I was leaving the room
                    <gap/> Henry. 6. I met him <gap/> the room <gap/> the dining-hall. 7. The town
                    stands <gap/> the banks <gap/> the river Thames. 8. I gave the book <gap/> the
                    servant <gap/> all-work. 9. The roof <gap/> the house is decayed <gap/> some
                    places.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise81.</small_caps>— Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Noun.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise82.</small_caps>— Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Pre- position</italic> connecting a <italic>Pronoun</italic> and a
                        <italic>Pronoun</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 83. — In the following sentences, the
                        <italic>Conjunctions </italic>stand between <italic>Verbs expressed</italic>
                    and <italic>Verbs understood.</italic> Write the <italic>Conjunctions</italic>
                    and the <italic>Verbs</italic> they connect in columns:— 1. He danced, but not
                    I. 2. They write better than we. 3. Jones rode all the way, and Smith also. 4.
                    He thinks more about himself than about his wife. 5<italic>.</italic> The ladies
                    left, and then the gentlemen. 6. No one grumbled but John. 7. I warned him,
                    though too late. 8. He worked hard, though so young. 9. He is old and therefore
                    feeble.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 84. — Make twelve sentences, each with a
                        <italic>Con- junction</italic> connecting a <italic>Verb expressed</italic>
                    and a <italic>Verb understood.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 85. — In the following sentences, the
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic> stand between a <italic>Verb
                        understood</italic> and a <italic>Verb expressed.</italic> Write the
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic> and the <italic>Verbs</italic> they connect in
                    columns: — 1. The smith and the carpenter worked in this shop. 2. Though very
                    sick, he wrote till he could no longer hold the pen. 3. Though lame, he managed
                    to walk very fast. 4. If dry, the hay will be all the better. 5. The captain and
                    lieutenant remained on the ground. 6. Though rich, for our sakes he became poor.
                    7. If mounted, I shall be the better pleased to meet him.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 86. — Write the <italic>Plurals</italic> of:
                        <italic>Book, stick, cow, horse</italic>, <italic>boy, bottle, field, tree,
                        hound, weight, thing</italic>, <italic>jug.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 87. — Write the
                        <italic>Plurals</italic> of: <italic>Box, church, switch, fox, ash, potato,
                        ass, brush, witch, leech, hero, tax</italic>.<italic> </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 88. — Write the <italic>Plurals</italic> of:
                        <italic>Lady, folly, toy, duty, day, glory, delay</italic>, <italic>valley,
                        chimney, baby, ruby, fancy.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 89. — Write the <italic>Plurals</italic> of:
                        <italic>Calf, knife, wife, leaf, thief, dwarf, grief, sheaf, loaf, chief,
                        shelf, wolf.</italic></paragraph><paragraph type="exercise"
                        ><small_caps>Exercise 9</small_caps>0. — Write the <italic>Plurals</italic>
                    of: <italic>Man, woman, goose</italic>, <italic>tooth, foot, mouse, sheep, deer,
                        salmon, brace, score, fish, cannon.</italic></paragraph><paragraph
                    type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>91. — Write the
                        <italic>Plurals</italic> of: <italic>Navy</italic>, <italic>king, army,
                        calf, man-trap, chair, moss, buffalo, sheaf, wish, chimney, body</italic>,
                        <italic>monarch, play, ox, father-in-law, court-martial.
                    </italic></paragraph><paragraph type="exercise"
                        ><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 92. — Write the <italic>Plurals</italic>
                    of: <italic>Pond, penny, mouse, muff, brother, hoof, orange, city, journey,
                        deer, scholar, child.</italic></paragraph><paragraph type="exercise"
                        ><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>93. — Write out the words <italic>John,
                        Edward, Robert</italic>, <italic>Frank, and James,</italic> in the following
                    sentences, in separate columns, as they belong to either of the five cases: — 1.
                    John, come here. 2. I gave Frank a top. 3. Edward's cloak is lost. 4. Robert
                    struck John. 5. How do you do, Tom? <ed_note type="addition">6.</ed_note>I will
                    go with you, Frank, to the fair. 7. The baker handed Robert a bun. 8. Edward
                    kicked James for drinking the cream. 9. The coachman brought Frank's brother
                    John home. 10. James felt the ant creeping up his leg. 11. John's father made
                    Frank a beautiful boat. 12. Robert, get Edward a few cherries. 13. John, the
                    gamekeeper, sent Charles a brace of pheasants. 14. Robert hopes, John, that you
                    will fetch Edward the stick with which you beat James's brother Frank last
                    night. 15. Pluck Harry some cherries.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>94. — Make twelve sentences, with four
                        <italic>Nouns in </italic>the <italic>Nominative</italic> case, four in the
                        <italic>Possessive,</italic> and four in the
                    <italic>Dative.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>95. — Make twelve sentences, with six
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> in the <italic>Objective,</italic> and six in the
                        <italic>Vocative.</italic></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="50"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 96. — Place the
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> in the following sentences in five different columns,
                    for the <italic>Nominative, Possessive, Dative, Vocative</italic>, and
                        <italic>Objective</italic> cases: — 1. I gave him the book. 2. The
                    reading-room contains numerous maps. 3. General Baynes offered Colonel Bunch a
                    thousand pounds. 4. Guard, please unlock this carriage. 5. I want six buns, four
                    oranges, and two apples. 6. They went to Swan and Edgar's (What noun does the
                    word <italic>Edgar's </italic>possess?). 7. Have you seen the servant anywhere?
                    8. The soldier's child is dead. 9. The king granted the duke a hundred acres of
                    land. 10. They roasted chestnuts all the winter evening.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>97. — Make twelve sentences, with four
                        <italic>Nomina- tive</italic> cases, four <italic>Possessive</italic>, and
                    four <italic>Dative.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>98. — Make fifteen sentences, with three
                        <italic>Nomi- native,</italic> three <italic>Possessive,</italic> three
                        <italic>Dative,</italic> three <italic>Objective,</italic> and three
                        <italic>Vocative cases.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>99. — Work this Exerciselike Exercise96: — 1.
                    The squire gave every farmer a turkey for his Christinas dinner. 2. Robinson
                    Crusoe found a foot-print on the shore. 3. Tommie, come and help me to carry
                    this log. 4. The black- smith struck the carpenter with his hammer. 5. The man's
                    patience was quite worn out. 6. I fetched him the kite from the garret where it
                    was lying. 7. My uncle brought cousin Charles a brass spinning-top from London.
                    8. No eye has seen such sights. <italic>9.</italic> Farewell, dear old cottage!
                    10. The robin red-breast covered the children with leaves.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>100. — Make fifteen sentences, with three
                        <italic>Nouns </italic>in the <italic>Nominative,</italic> three in the
                        <italic>Dative,</italic> three in the <italic>Objective</italic>, three in
                    the <italic>Vocative</italic>, and three in the <italic>Possessive
                        case.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>101. — State the different cases in which the
                        <italic>nouns John</italic> and <italic>gardener</italic> are in the
                    following sentences: — 1. John gave me a nosegay. 2. Gardener, come and help me
                    to dig up this root. 3. John's hat is missing. 4. The puppy bit the gardener
                    severely. 5. He gave John a knife. 6. The smith made the gardener a new spade.
                    7. The coachman struck John with his whip. 8. I bought John a new hat. 9. The
                    gardener's wife is sick. 10. John, go and bring me some water. 11. The gardener
                    wants a new set of tools. 12. We gave John twenty new marbles.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>102. — Write eighteen sentences, three with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Nominative,</italic> three with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Possessive.</italic>three with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Dative</italic> or
                        <italic>Given-to</italic> case, three with a <pagebreak page_no="51"/>
                    <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Dative</italic> or <italic>Done-for
                        Case,</italic> three with a <italic>Noun</italic> in the
                        <italic>Objective,</italic> and three with a <italic>Noun</italic> in the
                        <italic>Vocative</italic> case.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>103. — Write down, in five columns, the
                    different cases in which <italic>Nouns</italic> are in the following sentences:
                    — 1. The duke led the army in person. 2. The king's son succeeded him. 3.
                    Richard pacified the rioters. 4. Ran as hard as you can, Tom! 5. The merchant
                    made the king a good offer. 6. My uncle bought Tom a Christmas-tree. 7. Henry's
                    father is now quite well. 8. The news hastened his death. 9. I shall not tell
                    you, John.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>104. — Write ten sentences, two with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Nominative,</italic> two with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Possessive,</italic> two with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Dative,</italic> two with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Objective,</italic> and two with a
                        <italic>Noun</italic> in the <italic>Vocative</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>105. — Write the
                        <italic>Possessive</italic> of: <italic>Boy, men, boys, man, women, cat,
                        cousin, fathers, unde, hen, brother, sister, brethren, child, mother,
                        children, mothers, aunts, cousins</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>106. — Place, in three
                    columns, those <italic>Possessives </italic>in the following, which are formed
                    (i.) by an ' and <italic>s</italic> for the singular, (ii.) by an ', and (iii.)
                    by an ' and <italic>s,</italic> for the plural: <italic>Horses', horse's,
                        friends', women's, mothers'</italic>,<italic> priests'</italic>,<italic>
                        friend's, Henry'</italic>s, <italic>kings', king's, brethren's</italic>,
                        <italic>men's, man's</italic>, <italic>children's, unde's,
                    uncles'.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>107. — Place, in separate columns, the
                    following <italic>Nouns</italic>, according to their gender: <italic>Cousin,
                        horse, queen, parent, shilling, mare, uncle, bird, cow, boy, book, army,
                        town, woman, person, grocer</italic>, <italic>shoemaker, miller,
                        spinner</italic>, <italic>impostor</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>108. — Write a list of
                    twelve <italic>Nouns,</italic> three <italic>Mascu- line,</italic> three
                        <italic>Feminine,</italic> three <italic>Neuter,</italic> and three
                        <italic>Common</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>109. — Give the <italic>Feminine</italic> of:
                        <italic>Boy, gentleman, giant, hunter, heir, he-bear, peacock, emperor,
                        uncle, brother, mayor, peer.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps>110. — Place, in separate columns, the
                    following <italic>Pronouns,</italic> as they are singular or plural: <italic>We,
                        you, thou, they, it, us, them, their, thee, him, her, thine, its.
                    </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 111— Write out the <italic>Possessive
                        Singular</italic> and <italic>Plural</italic> of: <italic>Boy, ox, man,
                        cousin, loaf, goose, tongs</italic>, <italic>echo, bottle</italic>,
                        <italic>tooth, mouse, bride, lady</italic>, <italic>John, horse</italic>,
                        <italic>Robert, Catherine, eagle</italic>, <italic>glass, Frank, Maria.
                    </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 112 — Arrange the
                    following in columns, as they happen to be <italic>Masculine or Feminine, Neuter
                        or Common Nouns: Bird, ant</italic>, <italic>countess, neighbour, peasant,
                        child, cousin, infant</italic>, <italic>servant, liar</italic>,
                        <italic>drunkard, darling, monk, singer</italic>, <italic>nun, mare, gander,
                        lady, calf, sheep, sow, duck.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">Exercise 113. — Place, in five separate columns, the
                    follow- ing Pronouns, as they belong to each of the five cases: <italic>We,
                        mine, us, me, you, them, it, they, his, her, yours, my, our, thee, him, its,
                        theirs, ours, she, thou, your, their.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>114. — Give the <italic>Feminine</italic> of
                    the following twelve Names: <italic>Uncle, lion, tutor, sir, peer, master, lord,
                        duke, ram, giant, colt, father, hero.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>115. — Give the <italic>Masculine</italic> of
                    the following twelve Names: <italic>Prophetess, tigress, bride, lass, doe,
                        goose, hind, spawner, roe, belle, girl, queen</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>116. — Make fifteen sentences, three with
                        <italic>you</italic> in the <italic>Nominative,</italic> three with
                        <italic>you</italic> in the <italic>Possessive,</italic> three with
                        <italic>you </italic>in the <italic>Dative,</italic> three with
                        <italic>you</italic> in the <italic>Objective,</italic> and three with
                        <italic>you</italic> in the <italic>Vocative</italic> case.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>117. — In what cases
                    are <italic>he</italic> and <italic>you,</italic> in the following sentences: —
                    1. His father has sailed to the polar seas. 2. You are quite wrong. 3. Come up
                    here, you fellows! 4. I offered him a shilling for the boat. 5. He has quite
                    forgotten the circumstance. 6. The gardener struck him with a spade. 7. His
                    cousins played him a trick. 8. They promised you the book. 9. We did him an
                    injustice. 10. I saw you in the garden.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>118.—State the
                        <italic>Genders</italic> of the <italic>Conjunctive Pro- nouns</italic> in
                    the following sentences: <italic></italic> 1. Tom Jones, who drives the cart,
                    Is dead. 2. Sally, who lives in our alley, is not well. 3. The dog that barked
                    so loud, was shot. 4. The boys, who were skating, fell in. 5. I will shoot the
                    first person who attempts to leave the ship. 6. The people who were with him now
                    deserted their leader. 7. He recited to me the very words that were said. 8. The
                    boys, whose fathers were present, were glad to see them again. 9. They killed
                    the kittens which you saw.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>119. — Compare the following
                        <italic>Adjectives</italic>:<italic> White, round, green, brown, black,
                            tall,<footnote indicator="Asterisk">It is not good taste to say tallish
                            or shortish; it is considered better to use the other form of the
                            Sub-positive, and to say, rather tall, rather short. The same is the
                            case with the other words marked so *.</footnote>short,* steep,* busy,*
                        high,* great,* smooth.*</italic></paragraph>
                <!-- Repeating Footnotes, what to do? -->
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>120. — Compare: Splendid, pleasant,
                    magnificent, interesting, welcome, accomplished, foolish, excellent.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 121.</small_caps>— Select the <italic>Adjectives</italic>
                    in the <italic>Comparative</italic>
                    <pagebreak page_no="53"/>
                    <italic>Degree</italic> in the following sentences, and place on each side of
                    them the two names that have been compared: — 1. John is taller than Tom. 2. I
                    don't think we have ever seen a finer building than this church. 3. The hippopo-
                    tamus is a fatter animal than the elephant. 4. A bloodier battle never was
                    fought. 5. His temper is pleasanter than Tom's. 6. Ben Nevis is higher than
                    Snowdon. 7. One good book is better than many bad books. 8. Mr. Hunt is a more
                    skilful artist than your friend. 9. The wind was higher yesterday than to-day.
                    (Is it the names <italic>yesterday</italic> and <italic>to-day</italic> that are
                    here compared, or two winds?)</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 122</small_caps>. — State when the words in the
                        <italic>Comparative Degree</italic>, in the following sentences, are
                        <italic>Adverbs</italic> and when <italic>Adjectives</italic>: —
                    <linebreak/> 1. I like Tom better than his brother. 2. This flour is better than
                    that. 3. A more beautiful building has seldom been erected. 4. The wind blew
                    harder as night came on. 5. I dislike the place more and more. 6. There were
                    more people in the inn than you saw. 7. He writes worse than ever. 8. This
                    drawing is worse than your last. 9. The invalid is much better to-day. 10. He
                    reads better than he did last half.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>123. — Write the
                        <italic>possessive singular</italic> and <italic>possessive plural</italic>
                    of the following <italic>Nouns; Man, horse</italic>, <italic>sheep, goat,
                        glutton, sloth, child, woman, peasant, baby, wolf, lady, dog,
                        monarch.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>124. — Write out the
                    following <italic>Nouns</italic>, in four columns, — one for the
                        <italic>masculine gender,</italic> one for the <italic>feminine,
                    </italic>one for the <italic>neuter,</italic> and one for <italic>either gender:
                        Book, cow, eagle, cousin, shop, man</italic>, <italic>baron, patron, ink,
                        brother, baroness, lady, lion</italic>, <italic>apple, toy, friend</italic>,
                        <italic>neighbour, lad, street, widow</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>125. — Write out six
                        <italic>Nouns</italic> in the <italic>masculine gender; </italic>six in the
                        <italic>feminine;</italic> six that are <italic>neuter;</italic> and six
                    that are <italic>common.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>126. — Write the
                        <italic>feminine</italic> of the following: <italic>Shep- herd, hero,
                        father, goat, actor, emperor</italic>, <italic>brother, gentleman,
                        lion</italic>, <italic>author, landgrave, tiger, earl, uncle, monk, he-ass,
                        prophet, king</italic>, <italic>son, he-bear</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>127.—State the
                        <italic>gender</italic> of the following: <italic>Duchess, nun, niece,
                        bride</italic>, <italic>child</italic>, <italic>friend, princess, agent,
                        sultana, giantess, duke, emperor, table, chair, daughter, aunt,
                        hind.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>128. — Write out all the
                        <italic>Pronouns,</italic> in their <italic>singu- lar</italic> and
                        <italic>plural</italic> forms.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>129. — Select all the
                        <italic>Pronouns</italic> in the <italic>possessive </italic>case from the
                    following: — <linebreak/>
                    <pagebreak page_no="54"/> 1. My box is quite as good as yours. 2. Our horse is
                    in the stable. 3. Her hat is on the table. 4. This stick is not his. 5. I lived
                    six months in their house. 6. Your plough is old and broken. 7. That book is not
                    theirs, but ours. 8. My cottage stands near a brook. 9. His foot is rather
                    short.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>130. — Write the <italic>Pronouns</italic> in
                    the following sen- tences, in different columns, according as they are in the
                        <italic>Dative</italic> or <italic>Objective</italic> case: — 1. Tom made me
                    a little cart. 2. His uncle promised him a gold watch. 3. The blacksmith struck
                    him on the head. 4. The cobbler told us a long story. 5. The boys love him much.
                    6. Her aunt showed her the workbox. 7. The fire caught her. 8. I gave them
                    half-a-crown. 9. Send us the boots as soon as possible. 10. Our uncle will bring
                    you a new set of books. 11. Mr. Scott Russell built him a yacht. 12. Lend us the
                    bats and wickets. 13. Our friend saw them in the field. 14. They dragged him
                    along. 15. The carpenter mended it very well. 16. We saw you first. 17. The
                    joiner made us a new chair. 18. The blow injured them very much.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>131. — State whether
                    the <italic>Pronouns</italic> in the following sentences are in the
                        <italic>Nominative,</italic> or <italic>Vocative</italic>, or
                        <italic>Objective</italic> cases: 1. They saw that the ship was sailing. 2.
                    You villains! what do you mean? 3. I shall never forget the horrors of that
                    night. 4. As we gazed where our ship had been, a blank was before us. 5. Go to
                    the ant, thou sluggard! 6. They hoisted us on board. 7. Andrew, what say you to
                    this? 8. We must not lose courage, but put our trust in Providence. 9. You
                    overlooked them.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>132. — Select all the
                        <italic>Conjunctive</italic> or <italic>Relative Pro- nouns</italic> from
                    the following sentences: — 1. You, who saw them, can tell. 2. I am sure that you
                    are wrong. 3. I see the golden helmet, that shines far off like flame. 4. And
                    many more, whose names on earth are dark. (Is this a complete statement?) 5.
                    There is a reaper, whose name is Death. (Is this a complete statement?) 6. The
                    man whom yon saw in the field has just come into the house. 7. A strong breeze
                    sprang up, which sent her at the rate of seven knots an hour. (To what does the
                    word <italic>which</italic> in this sentence relate?) 8. In that case, we shall
                    stop here; that will be better than running the risk that we ran before. (Which
                    of the three <italic>thats</italic> in this sentence is a <italic>Relative
                        Pronoun</italic>?) 9. The glittering summits of the iceberg were seen to
                    bear forward, and, with a crash which could be heard by us at so great a
                    distance, to fall prostrate in the water.</paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="55"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>133. — Work the
                    following like Exercise 131: — I. He is in town. 2. I saw him. 3. His aunt gave
                    him three shillings. 4. O Thou who dwellest in heaven! hear and aid me. 5. His
                    horse shied, and threw him heavily on his head. 6 Our house is smaller than
                    yours. 7. The directors have offered us the loan of their new hall. 8. We are
                    not so stupid as you would have us appear. 9. Nothing could have given them
                    greater pleasure.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>184. — Draw out a tabular form of the
                        <italic>Pronouns </italic>according to the following model: — <linebreak/>
                    <table cols="5" rows="3">
                        <row role="heading">
                            <cell>Nom.</cell>
                            <cell>Poss.</cell>
                            <cell>Dat.</cell>
                            <cell>Obj.</cell>
                            <cell>Voc.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>I</cell>
                            <cell>My or Thine</cell>
                            <cell>Me</cell>
                            <cell>Me</cell>
                            <cell>(Wanting)</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row role="data">
                            <cell>Thou</cell>
                            <cell>Thy or Thine</cell>
                            <cell>Thee</cell>
                            <cell>Thee</cell>
                            <cell>Thou</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>135. — Make three sentences containing the
                    pro- noun <italic>who</italic>, three with the word <italic>that,</italic> three
                    with the word <italic>which, </italic>three with <italic>whose</italic>, and
                    three with <italic>whom</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>136. — State, in
                    columns, in which degree the following <italic>Adjectives</italic> are: Afore,
                        <italic>less, best, most, excellent, wider, prettier, ill, most, more,
                        elegant</italic>, <italic>jolliest, thicker,
                        widest</italic>.<italic> </italic></paragraph><paragraph type="exercise"
                        ><small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>137. — State to what the word
                        <italic>who</italic> relates in the following sentences: — 1. The landlord,
                    who had just killed the pig, locked the door. 2. The thief, who was covered with
                    blood, was horribly frightened. 3. I saw the poor boy who was singing yesterday.
                    4. All the men, who knew this very well, came flocking about him. 5. Once on a
                    time there was a woman who went out to hire a herdsman. 6. An old man in Germany
                    had seven sons, who were each three feet and a half high. 7. Little Thumbikin,
                    who was drowned in a pot of melted butter, was very tiny. 8. A little further
                    on, I saw a man in a boat, who was catching eels in an odd way. 9. I am the man
                    who is lord over this island.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise</small_caps> 138. — Compare, that is, write out upon the
                    four steps, <italic>Sub-Positive<footnote indicator="Asterisk">In all these
                            cases, the form "rather rich," "rather large," must be used for the
                                <italic>Sub-positive.</italic>
                        </footnote>, Positive, Comparative,</italic> and
                        <italic>Superlative</italic>, the following
                        <italic>Adjectives</italic>:<italic> Rich, large, little, good, bad, near,
                        gay, high, strong, sharp, ripe, late, old, far, noble, swift, brave.
                    </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>139. — Tell the degrees of comparison of the
                    following <italic>Adjectives</italic>:<italic> Blackish, darkest, neater,
                        pretty</italic>, <italic>prettiest, whitish, larger, best, clearest,
                        fresh</italic>, <italic>broadest, flatterer, most transparent</italic>,
                        <italic>weaker, elder, older, sunny, noisiest, more infirm, <pagebreak
                            page_no="56"/> braver, more wonderful, healthier, yellowish, most
                        beautiful, better, longest, most disobedient.</italic>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 140.</small_caps>— Compare, that is, write out upon the
                    four steps the following <italic>Adjectives</italic>: <italic>Hard, dear,
                        imprudent</italic>, <italic>quick, strong, mountainous, fat, delicate,
                        sweet, wretched, rigorous, rich, happy</italic>, <italic>clever,
                        painful</italic>, <italic>monstrous</italic>, <italic>tempestuous, high,
                        low</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>141. — Join the present and past tenses of
                        <italic>think, make, know, do, have, and blow, </italic>to <italic>I, thou,
                        he, she, it, we, you</italic>, and <italic>they.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>142. — Write out every word in the following
                    sentences in this way: <linebreak/>
                    <table cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>He</cell>
                            <cell>He pronoun, nominative or named case, singular number, masculine
                                gender. This word is in the <italic>named case, </italic>because it
                                is named for the purpose of saying <italic>jumps</italic> about
                                it.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>jumps</cell>
                            <cell>verb or telling word, asserted of the pronoun <italic>he,
                                </italic>— and therefore having the form for the third person and
                                singular number, — present time.</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table> 1. He jumps. 2. They sing. 3. She wrote. 4. We knew. 5. You thought. 6.
                    I do.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>143. — To what <italic>Pronouns</italic> can
                    the following <italic>Verbs </italic>be joined: <italic>Are, knew, runs, did,
                        dost</italic>, <italic>walk, walks, walked, is, am, were, was.
                    </italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>144. — Write out the <italic>Verb Be</italic>
                    as given in the grammar.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>145. — Write about the parts of the
                        <italic>Verb Be,</italic> in the following sentences, in this way: — <table
                        cols="2" rows="2">
                        <row>
                            <cell>Being</cell>
                            <cell>adjectival form of verb <italic>be,</italic> marking the noun John
                                (in Sentence 6) and in the present time.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>Are</cell>
                            <cell>verb, asserted of the pronoun <italic>we</italic> (in Sentence 1),
                                and, therefore, in the first person, and plural number.</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table> Are 1. We are. 2. He is. 3. He was. 4. Be quiet! 5. You were. 6. Being
                    ill, John could not see me. 7. Thou art. 8. I am. 9. Being so big, Charles could
                    not come in at the door.</paragraph>
                <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>146. — Write out the <italic>Verbs jump</italic>
                and <italic>think,</italic> like the <italic>Verb Be</italic> in your grammar.
                    <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>147. — State in what <italic>Tense</italic>
                    the <italic>Verbs</italic> in the following sentences are: — 1. He had no
                    thought of how strong a wind blew outside the bar. 2. We saw Tom in town. 3.
                    They were not aware of the fact. 4. The cook makes very good mince pies,
                        <pagebreak page_no="57"/> 5. He thinks they like plum-pudding. 6. The ladies
                    have three boxes, four portmanteaus, eight band-boxes, two bird- cages, and a
                    small hamper. 7. That is all. 8. I wish I were two miles hence. 9. Captain
                    Wilkes knew very little about international law, though he had on board a great
                    many law books.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>148. — State in what <italic>Mood</italic> the
                        <italic>Verbs</italic> are in <small_caps>Exercise
                    147</small_caps>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>149. — Write out all the parts of the
                        <italic>Verb Be </italic>that are <italic>singular,</italic> all that are
                        <italic>plural;</italic> all that are of the <italic>first person</italic>
                    and all that are of the <italic>second person;</italic> and all that are the
                    same in form, with the <italic>Pronouns</italic> they may go with.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>150. — Turn all the <italic>Past
                        Tenses</italic> in Exercise 147 into <italic>Present Tenses;</italic> and
                    all the <italic>Present Tenses</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>151. — State when the parts of the
                        <italic>Verb Be,</italic> in the following sentences, are in the
                        <italic>Conjunctive form</italic>: — 1. I would run down, if he were nearer,
                    and visit him. 2. I won’t go, unless you be there. 3. I will see him, though he
                    be a swindler. 4. I do not think you could do it, if you were ever so tall. 5.
                    We shall not find him at the station, unless we be in time. 6. We shall
                    certainly bring the eatables, if we be there at all.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>152. — State what
                        <italic>Conjunctions</italic> join the pairs of sentences in each of the
                    above examples.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>153. — Parse the <italic>Pronouns,
                        Conjunctions</italic>, and <italic>parts</italic> of the <italic>Verb
                        Be</italic> in the first three examples in Exercise 151, according to the
                    following pattern :— <linebreak/>
                    <table cols="2" rows="4">
                        <row>
                            <cell>I</cell>
                            <cell>pronoun of the first person, singular number, in the named or
                                nominative case.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>him</cell>
                            <cell>pronoun of the third person, singular number, in the
                                    <italic>done-to</italic> or objective case.</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>if</cell>
                            <cell>conjunction or sentence-connecting word, connecting the sentence
                                "I would visit him," with the sentence "he were nearer."</cell>
                        </row>
                        <row>
                            <cell>were</cell>
                            <cell>third person, singular number, past tense, conjunctive form of the
                                    <italic>verb be</italic> — of the same person and number as the
                                word <italic>he</italic>.</cell>
                        </row>
                    </table>
                </paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>154. — Parse the last three sentences in
                    Exercise 151, according to the above model.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise </small_caps>155. — Make six pairs of sentences, joined by
                    the <italic><italic>Conjunctions</italic> though</italic>,
                        <italic>unless,</italic> and <italic>if.</italic></paragraph>
                <pagebreak page_no="58"/>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 156.</small_caps> — Compare the Adverbs: <italic>Fast,
                        gaily, quick, soon, sulkily, angrily, often, seldom,
                    splendidly</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 157.</small_caps> — Compare the following Adverbs, when
                    they can be compared: <italic>Ill, clumsily, gaily, cheap, once, sometimes,
                        ably, eloquently, fast, dear, likely, here, hence, why, perhaps, lately,
                        stupidly, warmly.</italic></paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 158.</small_caps> — Make sentences, each containing one of
                    the Adverbs in Exercise 156.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 159.</small_caps> — Make sentences, each containing one of
                    the Adverbs in the first half of Exercise 157.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise 160.</small_caps> — Make sentences,
                    each containing one of the Adverbs in the last half of Exercise 157.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise"><small_caps>Exercise 161.</small_caps> — Make sentences,
                    each containing one of the Adverbs in Exercise 156, but in the
                        <italic>Comparative Degree</italic>.</paragraph>
                <paragraph type="exercise">
                    <small_caps>Exercise 162.</small_caps> — Make sentences, each containing one of
                    the Adverbs in Exercise 156, but in the <italic>Superlative
                    Degree</italic>.</paragraph>
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        <div0 description="back_matter">
            <div1 description="imprint">
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